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Title: Galaxy Zoo: Morphological Classification of Galaxy Images from the Illustris Simulation
Award ID(s):
1716602 1413610
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Abstract

    We construct accurate emulators for the projected and redshift space galaxy correlation functions and excess surface density as measured by galaxy–galaxy lensing, based on halo occupation distribution modeling. Using the complete Mira-Titan suite of 111N-body simulations, our emulators vary over eight cosmological parameters and include the effects of neutrino mass and dynamical dark energy. We demonstrate that our emulators are sufficiently accurate for the analysis of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey DR12 CMASS galaxy sample over the range 0.5 ≤r≤ 50h−1Mpc. Furthermore, we show that our emulators are capable of recovering unbiased cosmological constraints from realistic mock catalogs over the same range. Our mock catalog tests show the efficacy of combining small-scale galaxy–galaxy lensing with redshift space clustering and that we can constrain the growth rate andσ8to 7% and 4.5%, respectively, for a CMASS-like sample using only the measurements covered by our emulator. With the inclusion of a cosmic microwave background prior onH0, this reduces to a 2% measurement of the growth rate.

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  3. We investigate structural properties of massive galaxy populations in the central regions (< 0.7  r 500 ) of five very massive ( M 200  > 4 × 10 14   M ⊙ ), high-redshift (1.4 ≲  z  ≲ 1.7) galaxy clusters from the 2500 deg 2 South Pole Telescope Sunyaev Zel’dovich effect (SPT-SZ) survey. We probe the connection between galaxy structure and broad stellar population properties at stellar masses of log( M / M ⊙ ) > 10.85. We find that quiescent and star-forming cluster galaxy populations are largely dominated by bulge- and disk-dominated sources, respectively, with relative contributions being fully consistent with those of field counterparts. At the same time, the enhanced quiescent galaxy fraction observed in these clusters with respect to the coeval field is reflected in a significant morphology-density relation, with bulge-dominated galaxies already clearly dominating the massive galaxy population in these clusters at z  ∼ 1.5. At face value, these observations show no significant environmental signatures in the correlation between broad structural and stellar population properties. In particular, the Sersic index and axis ratio distribution of massive, quiescent sources are consistent with field counterparts, in spite of the enhanced quiescent galaxy fraction in clusters. This consistency suggests a tight connection between quenching and structural evolution towards a bulge-dominated morphology, at least in the probed cluster regions and galaxy stellar mass range, irrespective of environment-related processes affecting star formation in cluster galaxies. We also probe the stellar mass–size relation of cluster galaxies, and find that star-forming and quiescent sources populate the mass–size plane in a manner largely similar to their field counterparts, with no evidence of a significant size difference for any probed sub-population. In particular, both quiescent and bulge-dominated cluster galaxies have average sizes at fixed stellar mass consistent with their counterparts in the field. 
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    Characterizing the structural properties of galaxies in high-redshift protoclusters is key to our understanding of the environmental effects on galaxy evolution in the early stages of galaxy and structure formation. In this study, we assess the structural properties of 85 and 87 Hα emission-line candidates (HAEs) in the densest regions of two massive protoclusters, BOSS1244 and BOSS1542, respectively, using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) H-band imaging data. Our results show a true pair fraction of 22 ± 5 (33 ± 6) per cent in BOSS1244 (BOSS1542), which yields a merger rate of 0.41 ± 0.09 (0.52 ± 0.04) Gyr−1 for massive HAEs with log (M*/M⊙) ≥ 10.3. This rate is 1.8 (2.8) times higher than that of the general fields at the same epoch. Our sample of HAEs exhibits half-light radii and Sérsic indices that cover a broader range than field star-forming galaxies. Additionally, about 15 per cent of the HAEs are as compact as the most massive (log (M*/M⊙) ≳ 11) spheroid-dominated population. These results suggest that the high galaxy density and cold dynamical state (i.e. velocity dispersion of <400 km s−1) are key factors that drive galaxy mergers and promote structural evolution in the two protoclusters. Our findings also indicate that both the local environment (on group scales) and the global environment play essential roles in shaping galaxy morphologies in protoclusters. This is evident in the systematic differences observed in the structural properties of galaxies between BOSS1244 and BOSS1542.

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