Deconvolution is a key component in contemporary neural networks, especially generative adversarial networks (GANs) and fully convolutional networks (FCNs). Due to extra operations of deconvolution compared to convolution, considerable degradation of performance as well as energy efficiency is incurred when implementing deconvolution on the existing resistive random access memory (ReRAM)-based processing-in-memory (PIM) accelerators. In this work, we propose a ReRAM-based accelerator design, RED, for providing high-performance and low-energy deconvolution. We analyze the deconvolution execution on the existing ReRAM-based PIMs and utilize its interior computation pattern for design optimization. RED includes two major contributions: pixel-wise mapping scheme and zero-skipping data flow. Pixel-wise mapping scheme removes the zero insertion and performs convolutions over several ReRAM arrays and thus enables parallel computations with non-zero inputs. Zero-skipping data flow, assisted with customized input buffers design, enhances the computation parallelism and input data reuse. In evaluation, we compare RED against the existing ReRAM-based PIMs and CMOS-based counterpart with a variety of GAN and FCN models, each of which contains multiple deconvolution layers. The experimental results show that RED achieves a 4.0×-56.16× speedup and a 1.05×-18.17× energy efficiency improvement over previous related accelerator designs.
GraphR: Accelerating Graph Processing Using ReRAM
Graph processing recently received intensive interests in light of a wide range of needs to understand relationships. It is well-known for the poor locality and high memory bandwidth requirement. In conventional architectures, they incur a significant amount of data movements and energy consumption which motivates several hardware graph processing accelerators. The current graph processing accelerators rely on memory access optimizations or placing computation logics close to memory. Distinct from all existing approaches, we leverage an emerging memory technology to accelerate graph processing with analog computation. This paper presents GRAPHR, the first ReRAM-based graph processing accelerator. GRAPHR follows the principle of near-data processing and explores the opportunity of performing massive parallel analog operations with low hardware and energy cost. The analog computation is suitable for graph processing because: 1) The algorithms are iterative and could inherently tolerate the imprecision; 2) Both probability calculation (e.g., PageRank and Collaborative Filtering) and typical graph algorithms involving integers (e.g., BFS/SSSP) are resilient to errors. The key insight of GRAPHR is that if a vertex program of a graph algorithm can be expressed in sparse matrix vector multiplication (SpMV), it can be efficiently performed by ReRAM crossbar. We show that this assumption is generally true for more »
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- IEEE International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA)
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 531 to 543
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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