A fundamental question in many data analysis settings is the problem of discerning the “natural” dimension of a data set. That is, when a data set is drawn from a manifold (possibly with noise), a meaningful aspect of the data is the dimension of that manifold. Various approaches exist for estimating this dimension, such as the method of SecantAvoidance Projection (SAP). Intuitively, the SAP algorithm seeks to determine a projection which best preserves the lengths of all secants between points in a data set; by applying the algorithm to find the best projections to vector spaces of various dimensions, one may infer the dimension of the manifold of origination. That is, one may learn the dimension at which it is possible to construct a diffeomorphic copy of the data in a lowerdimensional Euclidean space. Using Whitney's embedding theorem, we can relate this information to the natural dimension of the data. A drawback of the SAP algorithm is that a data set with T points has O(T 2 ) secants, making the computation and storage of all secants infeasible for very large data sets. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm that generalizes the SAP algorithm with an emphasis on addressing this issue. That is, we propose a hierarchical secantbased dimensionalityreduction method, which can be employed for data sets where explicitly calculating all secants is not feasible.
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A GPUOriented Algorithm Design for SecantBased Dimensionality Reduction
Dimensionalityreduction techniques are a fundamental tool for extracting useful information from highdimensional data sets. Because secant sets encode manifold geometry, they are a useful tool for designing meaningful datareduction algorithms. In one such approach, the goal is to construct a projection that maximally avoids secant directions and hence ensures that distinct data points are not mapped too close together in the reduced space. This type of algorithm is based on a mathematical framework inspired by the constructive proof of Whitney's embedding theorem from differential topology. Computing all (unit) secants for a set of points is by nature computationally expensive, thus opening the door for exploitation of GPU architecture for achieving fast versions of these algorithms. We present a polynomialtime datareduction algorithm that produces a meaningful lowdimensional representation of a data set by iteratively constructing improved projections within the framework described above. Key to our algorithm design and implementation is the use of GPUs which, among other things, minimizes the computational time required for the calculation of all secant lines. One goal of this report is to share ideas with GPU experts and to discuss a class of mathematical algorithms that may be of interest to the broader GPU community.
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 Award ID(s):
 1633830
 NSFPAR ID:
 10064959
 Date Published:
 Journal Name:
 17th IEEE International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Computing (ISPDC 2018)
 Format(s):
 Medium: X
 Sponsoring Org:
 National Science Foundation
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A fundamental question in many data analysis settings is the problem of discerning the ``natural'' dimension of a data set. That is, when a data set is drawn from a manifold (possibly with noise), a meaningful aspect of the data is the dimension of that manifold. Various approaches exist for estimating this dimension, such as the method of SecantAvoidance Projection (SAP). Intuitively, the SAP algorithm seeks to determine a projection which best preserves the lengths of all secants between points in a data set; by applying the algorithm to find the best projections to vector spaces of various dimensions, one may infer the dimension of the manifold of origination. That is, one may learn the dimension at which it is possible to construct a diffeomorphic copy of the data in a lowerdimensional Euclidean space. Using Whitney's embedding theorem, we can relate this information to the natural dimension of the data. A drawback of the SAP algorithm is that a data set with $n$ points has $n(n1)/2$ secants, making the computation and storage of all secants infeasible for very large data sets. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm that generalizes the SAP algorithm with an emphasis on addressing this issue. That is, we propose a hierarchical secantbased dimensionalityreduction method, which can be employed for data sets where explicitly calculating all secants is not feasible.more » « less

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