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Title: Phylogenetic Structure of Plant Communities: Are Polyploids Distantly Related to Co-occurring Diploids?
Polyploidy is widely acknowledged to have played an important role in the evolution and diversification of vascular plants. However, the influence of genome duplication on population-level dynamics and its cascading effects at the community level remain unclear. In part, this is due to persistent uncertainties over the extent of polyploid phenotypic variation, and the interactions between polyploids and co-occurring species, and highlights the need to integrate polyploid research at the population and community level. Here, we investigate how community-level patterns of phylogenetic relatedness might influence escape from minority cytotype exclusion, a classic population genetics hypothesis about polyploid establishment, and population-level species interactions. Focusing on two plant families in which polyploidy has evolved multiple times, Brassicaceae and Rosaceae, we build upon the hypothesis that the greater allelic and phenotypic diversity of polyploids allow them to successfully inhabit a different geographic range compared to their diploid progenitor and close relatives. Using a phylogenetic framework, we specifically test (1) whether polyploid species are more distantly related to diploids within the same community than co-occurring diploids are to one another, and (2) if polyploid species tend to exhibit greater ecological success than diploids, using species abundance in communities as an indicator of successful establishment. Overall, our results suggest that the effects of genome duplication on community structure are not clear-cut. We find that polyploid species tend to be more distantly related to co-occurring diploids than diploids are to each other. However, we do not find a consistent pattern of polyploid species being more abundant than diploid species, suggesting polyploids are not uniformly more ecologically successful than diploids. While polyploidy appears to have some important influences on species co-occurrence in Brassicaceae and Rosaceae communities, our study highlights the paucity of available geographically explicit data on intraspecific ploidal variation. The increased use of high-throughput methods to identify ploidal variation, such as flow cytometry and whole genome sequencing, will greatly aid our understanding of how such a widespread, radical genomic mutation influences the evolution of species and those around them.  more » « less
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Frontiers in ecology and evolution
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National Science Foundation
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  1. Abstract

    Whole‐genome duplication has long been appreciated for its role in driving phenotypic novelty in plants, often altering the way organisms interface with the abiotic environment. Only recently, however, have we begun to investigate how polyploidy influences interactions of plants with other species, despite the biotic niche being predicted as one of the main determinants of polyploid establishment. Nevertheless, we lack information about how polyploidy affects the diversity and composition of the microbial taxa that colonize plants, and whether this is genotype‐dependent and repeatable across natural environments. This information is a first step towards understanding whether the microbiome contributes to polyploid establishment. We, thus, tested the immediate effect of polyploidy on the diversity and composition of the bacterial microbiome of the aquatic plantSpirodela polyrhizausing four pairs of diploids and synthetic autotetraploids. Under controlled conditions, axenic plants were inoculated with pond waters collected from 10 field sites across a broad environmental gradient. Autotetraploids hosted 4%–11% greater bacterial taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity than their diploid progenitors. Polyploidy, along with its interactions with the inoculum source and genetic lineage, collectively explained 7% of the total variation in microbiome composition. Furthermore, polyploidy broadened the core microbiome, with autotetraploids having 15 unique bacterial taxa in addition to the 55 they shared with diploids. Our results show that whole‐genome duplication directly leads to novelty in the plant microbiome and importantly that the effect is dependent on the genetic ancestry of the polyploid and generalizable over many environmental contexts.

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  2. Premise of the Study

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    Key Results

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  3. Premise

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  4. Summary

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  5. null (Ed.)
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