skip to main content

Title: Phylogenetic Structure of Plant Communities: Are Polyploids Distantly Related to Co-occurring Diploids?
Polyploidy is widely acknowledged to have played an important role in the evolution and diversification of vascular plants. However, the influence of genome duplication on population-level dynamics and its cascading effects at the community level remain unclear. In part, this is due to persistent uncertainties over the extent of polyploid phenotypic variation, and the interactions between polyploids and co-occurring species, and highlights the need to integrate polyploid research at the population and community level. Here, we investigate how community-level patterns of phylogenetic relatedness might influence escape from minority cytotype exclusion, a classic population genetics hypothesis about polyploid establishment, and population-level species interactions. Focusing on two plant families in which polyploidy has evolved multiple times, Brassicaceae and Rosaceae, we build upon the hypothesis that the greater allelic and phenotypic diversity of polyploids allow them to successfully inhabit a different geographic range compared to their diploid progenitor and close relatives. Using a phylogenetic framework, we specifically test (1) whether polyploid species are more distantly related to diploids within the same community than co-occurring diploids are to one another, and (2) if polyploid species tend to exhibit greater ecological success than diploids, using species abundance in communities as an indicator of successful establishment. more » Overall, our results suggest that the effects of genome duplication on community structure are not clear-cut. We find that polyploid species tend to be more distantly related to co-occurring diploids than diploids are to each other. However, we do not find a consistent pattern of polyploid species being more abundant than diploid species, suggesting polyploids are not uniformly more ecologically successful than diploids. While polyploidy appears to have some important influences on species co-occurrence in Brassicaceae and Rosaceae communities, our study highlights the paucity of available geographically explicit data on intraspecific ploidal variation. The increased use of high-throughput methods to identify ploidal variation, such as flow cytometry and whole genome sequencing, will greatly aid our understanding of how such a widespread, radical genomic mutation influences the evolution of species and those around them. « less
Authors:
; ;
Award ID(s):
1550813
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10082221
Journal Name:
Frontiers in ecology and evolution
Volume:
6
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
52
ISSN:
2296-701X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Floral organ size, especially the size of the corolla, plays an important role in plant reproduction by facilitating pollination efficiency. Previous studies have outlined a hypothesized organ size pathway. However, the expression and function of many of the genes in the pathway have only been investigated in model diploid species; therefore, it is unknown how these genes interact in polyploid species. Although correlations between ploidy and cell size have been shown in many systems, it is unclear whether there is a difference in cell size between naturally occurring and synthetic polyploids. To address these questions comparing floral organ size andmore »cell size across ploidy, we use natural and synthetic polyploids of Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) as well as their known diploid progenitors. We employ a comparative transcriptomics approach to perform analyses of differential gene expression, focusing on candidate genes that may be involved in floral organ size, both across developmental stages and across accessions. We see differential expression of several known floral organ candidate genes including ARF2, BIG BROTHER, and GASA/GAST1. Results from linear models show that ploidy, cell width, and cell number positively influence corolla tube circumference; however, the effect of cell width varies by ploidy, and diploids have a significantly steeper slope than both natural and synthetic polyploids. These results demonstrate that polyploids have wider cells and that polyploidy significantly increases corolla tube circumference.« less
  2. Abstract

    Phylogenetic networks provide a powerful framework for modeling and analyzing reticulate evolutionary histories. While polyploidy has been shown to be prevalent not only in plants but also in other groups of eukaryotic species, most work done thus far on phylogenetic network inference assumes diploid hybridization. These inference methods have been applied, with varying degrees of success, to data sets with polyploid species, even though polyploidy violates the mathematical assumptions underlying these methods. Statistical methods were developed recently for handling specific types of polyploids and so were parsimony methods that could handle polyploidy more generally yet while excluding processes suchmore »as incomplete lineage sorting. In this article, we introduce a new method for inferring most parsimonious phylogenetic networks on data that include polyploid species. Taking gene tree topologies as input, the method seeks a phylogenetic network that minimizes deep coalescences while accounting for polyploidy. We demonstrate the performance of the method on both simulated and biological data. The inference method as well as a method for evaluating evolutionary hypotheses in the form of phylogenetic networks are implemented and publicly available in the PhyloNet software package. [Incomplete lineage sorting; minimizing deep coalescences; multilabeled trees; multispecies network coalescent; phylogenetic networks; polyploidy.]

    « less
  3. Morrell, P (Ed.)
    Abstract By modeling the homoeologous gene losses that occurred in 50 genomes deriving from ten distinct polyploidy events, we show that the evolutionary forces acting on polyploids are remarkably similar, regardless of whether they occur in flowering plants, ciliates, fishes, or yeasts. We show that many of the events show a relative rate of duplicate gene loss before the first postpolyploidy speciation that is significantly higher than in later phases of their evolution. The relatively weak selective constraint experienced by the single-copy genes these losses produced leads us to suggest that most of the purely selectively neutral duplicate gene lossesmore »occur in the immediate postpolyploid period. Nearly all of the events show strong evidence of biases in the duplicate losses, consistent with them being allopolyploidies, with 2 distinct progenitors contributing to the modern species. We also find ongoing and extensive reciprocal gene losses (alternative losses of duplicated ancestral genes) between these genomes. With the exception of a handful of closely related taxa, all of these polyploid organisms are separated from each other by tens to thousands of reciprocal gene losses. As a result, it is very unlikely that viable diploid hybrid species could form between these taxa, since matings between such hybrids would tend to produce offspring lacking essential genes. It is, therefore, possible that the relatively high frequency of recurrent polyploidies in some lineages may be due to the ability of new polyploidies to bypass reciprocal gene loss barriers.« less
  4. Polyploidy is a prominent feature for genome evolution in many animals and all flowering plants. Plant polyploids often show enhanced fitness in diverse and extreme environments, but the molecular basis for this remains elusive. Soil salinity presents challenges for many plants including agricultural crops. Here we report that salt tolerance is enhanced in tetraploid rice through lower sodium uptake and correlates with epigenetic regulation of jasmonic acid (JA)–related genes. Polyploidy induces DNA hypomethylation and potentiates genomic loci coexistent with many stress-responsive genes, which are generally associated with proximal transposable elements (TEs). Under salt stress, the stress-responsive genes including those inmore »the JA pathway are more rapidly induced and expressed at higher levels in tetraploid than in diploid rice, which is concurrent with increased jasmonoyl isoleucine (JA-Ile) content and JA signaling to confer stress tolerance. After stress, elevated expression of stress-responsive genes in tetraploid rice can induce hypermethylation and suppression of the TEs adjacent to stress-responsive genes. These induced responses are reproducible in a recurring round of salt stress and shared between twojaponicatetraploid rice lines. The data collectively suggest a feedback relationship between polyploidy-induced hypomethylation in rapid and strong stress response and stress-induced hypermethylation to repress proximal TEs and/or TE-associated stress-responsive genes. This feedback regulation may provide a molecular basis for selection to enhance adaptation of polyploid plants and crops during evolution and domestication.

    « less
  5. Bulgarelli, Davide (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT The composition of microbial communities found in association with plants is influenced by host phenotype and genotype. However, the ways in which specific genetic architectures of host plants shape microbiomes are unknown. Genome duplication events are common in the evolutionary history of plants and influence many important plant traits, and thus, they may affect associated microbial communities. Using experimentally induced whole-genome duplication (WGD), we tested the effect of WGD on rhizosphere bacterial communities in Arabidopsis thaliana . We performed 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to characterize differences between microbiomes associated with specific host genetic backgrounds (Columbia versus Landsberg) and ploidymore »levels (diploid versus tetraploid). We modeled relative abundances of bacterial taxa using a hierarchical Bayesian approach. We found that host genetic background and ploidy level affected rhizosphere community composition. We then tested to what extent microbiomes derived from a specific genetic background or ploidy level affected plant performance by inoculating sterile seedlings with microbial communities harvested from a prior generation. We found a negative effect of the tetraploid Columbia microbiome on growth of all four plant genetic backgrounds. These findings suggest an interplay between host genetic background and ploidy level and bacterial community assembly with potential ramifications for host fitness. Given the prevalence of ploidy-level variation in both wild and managed plant populations, the effects on microbiomes of this aspect of host genetic architecture could be a widespread driver of differences in plant microbiomes. IMPORTANCE Plants influence the composition of their associated microbial communities, yet the underlying host-associated genetic determinants are typically unknown. Genome duplication events are common in the evolutionary history of plants and affect many plant traits. Using Arabidopsis thaliana , we characterized how whole-genome duplication affected the composition of rhizosphere bacterial communities and how bacterial communities associated with two host plant genetic backgrounds and ploidy levels affected subsequent plant growth. We observed an interaction between ploidy level and genetic background that affected both bacterial community composition and function. This research reveals how genome duplication, a widespread genetic feature of both wild and crop plant species, influences bacterial assemblages and affects plant growth.« less