skip to main content

Title: Nonstoichiometry, structure, and properties of Ba 1−x TiO y thin films
The effects of growth conditions on the chemistry, structure, electrical leakage, dielectric response, and ferroelectric behavior of Ba 1−x TiO y thin films are explored. Although single-phase, coherently-strained films are produced in all cases, small variations in the laser fluence during pulsed-laser deposition growth result in films with chemistries ranging from BaTiO 3 to Ba 0.93 TiO 2.87 . As the laser fluence increases, the films become more barium deficient and the out-of-plane lattice parameter expands (as much as 5.4% beyond the expected value for Ba 0.93 TiO 2.87 films). Stoichiometric BaTiO 3 films are found to be three orders of magnitude more conducting than Ba 0.93 TiO 2.87 films and the barium-deficient films exhibit smaller low-field permittivity, lower loss tangents, and higher dielectric maximum temperatures. Although large polarization is observed in all cases, large built-in potentials (shifted loops) and hysteresis-loop pinching are present in barium-deficient films – suggesting the presence of defect dipoles. The effects of these defect dipoles on ferroelectric hysteresis are studied using first-order reversal curves. Temperature-dependent current–voltage and deep-level transient spectroscopy studies reveal at least two defect states, which grow in concentration with increasing deficiency of both barium and oxygen, at ∼0.4 eV and ∼1.2 eV more » above the valence band edge, which are attributed to defect–dipole complexes and defect states, respectively. The defect states can also be removed via ex post facto processing. Such work to understand and control defects in this important material could provide a pathway to enable better control over its properties and highlight new avenues to manipulate functions in these complex materials. « less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1708615
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10089023
Journal Name:
Journal of Materials Chemistry C
Volume:
6
Issue:
40
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
10751 to 10759
ISSN:
2050-7526
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Surface functionalized barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ) nanocrystals have been explored for highly tunable chemical and electronic properties, potentially of use in ceramic-polymer composites for flexible ferroelectric device applications, directed synthesis of ferroelectric thin films or other nano-architectures, and other potential applications. The detailed temperature dependent local structure evolution of BaTiO 3 nanocubes capped with nonpolar oleic acid (OA) and polar tetrafluoroborate (BF 4 − ) ligands are investigated using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis, in conjunction with piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and 137 Ba nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy measurements. Diffraction analysis reveals that nanocubes capped by polar BF 4 − ligands undergo sharper ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transitions than nanocubes capped with nonpolar OA ligands, with the smallest ∼12 nm nanocubes displaying no transition. Local non-centrosymmetric symmetry is observed by PDF analysis and confirmed by NMR, persisting across the phase transition temperature. Local distortion analysis, manifested in tetragonality ( c / a ) and Ti off-centering ( z Ti ) parameters, reveals distinct temperature and length-scale dependencies with particle size and capping group. Ferroelectric order is increased by polar BF 4 − ligands, which is corroborated by an enhancement of PFM response.
  2. Strain-sensitive Ba x Sr 1− x TiO 3 perovskite systems are widely used because of their superior nonlinear dielectric behaviors. In this research, new heterostructures including paraelectric Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 TiO 3 (BSTO) and ferroelectric BaTiO 3 (BTO) materials were epitaxially fabricated on flexible muscovite substrate. Through simple bending, the application of mechanical force can regulate the dielectric constant of BSTO from −77 to 36% and the channel current of BTO-based ferroelectric field effect transistor by two orders. The detailed mechanism was studied through the exploration of phase transition and determination of band structure. In addition, the phase-field simulations were implemented to provide theoretical support. This research opens a new avenue for mechanically controllable components based on high-quality oxide heteroepitaxy.
  3. Na-ion conducting solid electrolytes can enable both the enhanced safety profile of all-solid-state-batteries and the transition to an earth-abundant charge-carrier for large-scale stationary storage. In this work, we developed new perovskite-structured Na-ion conductors from the analogous fast Li-ion conducting Li 3 x La 2/3− x TiO 3 (LLTO), testing strategies of chemo-mechanical and defect engineering. Na x La 2/3−1/3 x ZrO 3 (NLZ) and Na x La 1/3−1/3 x Ba 0.5 ZrO 3 (NLBZ) were prepared using a modified Pechini method with varying initial stoichiometries and sintering temperatures. With the substitution of larger framework cations Zr 4+ and Ba 2+ on B- and A-sites respectively, NLZ and NLBZ both had larger lattice parameters compared to LLTO, in order to accommodate and potentially enhance the transport of larger Na ions. Additionally, we sought to introduce Na vacancies through (a) sub-stoichiometric Na : La ratios, (b) Na loss during sintering, and (c) donor doping with Nb. AC impedance spectroscopy and DC polarization experiments were performed on both Na 0.5 La 0.5 ZrO 3 and Na 0.25 La 0.25 Ba 0.5 ZrO 3 in controlled gas environments (variable oxygen partial pressure, humidity) at elevated temperatures to quantify the contributions of various possible charge carriers (sodiummore »ions, holes, electrons, oxygen ions, protons). Our results showed that the lattice-enlarged NLZ and NLBZ exhibited ∼19× (conventional sintering)/49× (spark plasma sintering) and ∼7× higher Na-ion conductivities, respectively, compared to unexpanded Na 0.42 La 0.525 TiO 3 . Moreover, the Na-ion conductivity of Na 0.5 La 0.5 ZrO 3 is comparable with that of NaNbO 3 , despite having half the carrier concentration. Additionally, more than 96% of the total conductivity in dry conditions was contributed by sodium ions for both compositions, with negligible electronic conductivity and little oxygen ion conductivity. We also identified factors that limited Na-ion transport: NLZ and NLBZ were both challenging to densify using conventional sintering without the loss of Na because of its volatility. With spark plasma sintering, higher density can be achieved. In addition, the NLZ perovskite phase appeared unable to accommodate significant Na deficiency, whereas NLBZ allowed some. Density functional theory calculations supported a thermodynamic limitation to creation of Na-deficient NLZ in favor of a pyrochlore-type phase. Humid environments generated different behavior: in Na 0.25 La 0.25 Ba 0.5 ZrO 3 , incorporated protons raised total conductivity, whereas in Na 0.5 La 0.5 ZrO 3 , they lowered total conductivity. Ultimately, this systematic approach revealed both effective approaches and limitations to achieving super-ionic Na-ion conductivity, which may eventually be overcome through alternative processing routes.« less
  4. Controlling the growth of complex relaxor ferroelectric thin films and understanding the relationship between biaxial strain–structural domain characteristics are desirable for designing materials with a high electromechanical response. For this purpose, epitaxial thin films free of extended defects and secondary phases are urgently needed. Here, we used optimized growth parameters and target compositions to obtain epitaxial (40–45 nm) 0.67Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 –0.33PbTiO 3 /(20 nm) SrRuO 3 (PMN–33PT/SRO) heterostructures using pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) on singly terminated SrTiO 3 (STO) and ReScO 3 (RSO) substrates with Re = Dy, Tb, Gd, Sm, and Nd. In situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) analysis confirmed high-quality and single-phase thin films with smooth 2D surfaces. High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (HR-STEM) revealed sharp interfaces and homogeneous strain further confirming the epitaxial cube-on-cube growth mode of the PMN–33PT/SRO heterostructures. The combined XRD reciprocal space maps (RSMs) and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) analysis revealed that the domain structure of the PMN–33PT heterostructures is sensitive to the applied compressive strain. From the RSM patterns, an evolution from a butterfly-shaped diffraction pattern for mildly strained PMN–33PT layers, which is evidence of stabilization of relaxor domains, to disc-shaped diffraction patterns formore »high compressive strains with a highly distorted tetragonal structure, is observed. The PFM amplitude and phase of the PMN–33PT thin films confirmed the relaxor-like for a strain state below ∼1.13%, while for higher compressive strain (∼1.9%) the irregularly shaped and poled ferroelectric domains were observed. Interestingly, the PFM phase hysteresis loops of the PMN–33PT heterostructures grown on the SSO substrates (strain state of ∼0.8%) exhibited an enhanced coercive field which is about two times larger than that of the thin films grown on GSO and NSO substrates. The obtained results show that epitaxial strain engineering could serve as an effective approach for tailoring and enhancing the functional properties in relaxor ferroelectrics.« less
  5. The current trend in the miniaturization of electronic devices has driven the investigation into many nanostructured materials. The ferroelectric material barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ) has garnered considerable attention over the past decade owing to its excellent dielectric and ferroelectric properties. This has led to significant progress in synthetic techniques that yield high quality BaTiO 3 nanocrystals (NCs) with well-defined morphologies ( e.g. , nanoparticles, nanorods, nanocubes and nanowires) and controlled crystal phases ( e.g. , cubic, tetragonal and multi-phase). The ability to produce nanoscale BaTiO 3 with controlled properties enables theoretical and experimental studies on the intriguing yet complex dielectric properties of individual BaTiO 3 NCs as well as BaTiO 3 /polymer nanocomposites. Compared with polymer-free individual BaTiO 3 NCs, BaTiO 3 /polymer nanocomposites possess several advantages. The polymeric component enables simple solution processibility, high breakdown strength and light weight for device scalability. The BaTiO 3 component enables a high dielectric constant. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the synthesis of high-quality BaTiO 3 NCs via a variety of chemical approaches including organometallic, solvothermal/hydrothermal, templating, molten salt, and sol–gel methods. We also summarize the dielectric and ferroelectric properties of individual BaTiO 3 NCs and devices based onmore »BaTiO 3 NCs via theoretical modeling and experimental piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) studies. In addition, viable synthetic strategies for novel BaTiO 3 /polymer nanocomposites and their structure–composition–performance relationship are discussed. Lastly, a perspective on the future direction of nanostructured BaTiO 3 -based materials is presented.« less