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Title: Recent Advances in Acyl Suzuki Cross-Coupling
Acyl Suzuki cross-coupling involves the coupling of an organoboron reagent with an acyl electrophile (acyl halide, anhydride, ester, amide). This review provides a timely overview of the very important advances that have recently taken place in the acylative Suzuki cross-coupling. Particular emphasis is directed toward the type of acyl electrophiles, catalyst systems and new cross-coupling partners. This review will be of value to synthetic chemists involved in this rapidly developing field of Suzuki cross-coupling as well as those interested in using acylative Suzuki cross-coupling for the synthesis of ketones as a catalytic alternative to stoichiometric nucleophilic additions or Friedel-Crafts reactions.
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  1. We report a general, highly selective method for Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling of N-acylphthalimides via N–C(O) acyl cleavage catalyzed by Pd–PEPPSI-type precatalysts. Of broad synthetic interest, the method introduces N-acylphthalimides as new, bench-stable, highly reactive, twist-controlled, amide-based precursors to acyl-metal intermediates. The reaction delivers functionalized biaryl ketones by acylative Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling with readily available boronic acids. Studies demonstrate that cheap, easily prepared, and broadly applicable Pd–PEPPSI-type precatalysts supported by a sterically demanding IPr (1,3-Bis-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) ancillary ligand provide high yields in this reaction. Preliminary selectivity studies and the effect of Pd–N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) complexes with allyl-type throw-away ligands are described. We expect that N-acylphthalimides will find significant use as amide-based acyl coupling reagents and cross-coupling precursors to acyl-metal intermediates.
  2. The Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling has been widely recognized as one of the most important methods for the construction of C–C bonds. However, in contrast to traditional aryl halide or pseudohalide electrophiles, coupling reactions with unactivated C–N and C–O electrophiles have proven significantly more challenging. Here we report the first general palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of both common amides and aryl esters through the selective cleavage of the C–N and C–O bonds under exceedingly mild conditions. Notably, for the first time we demonstrate selective C(acyl)– N and C(acyl)–O cleavage/cross-coupling under the same reaction conditions. The reaction uses a commercially available, bench-stable and operationally-convenient (n3-1-t-Bu-indenyl)Pd(IPr)(Cl) precatalyst. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the reactivity of generic amides and aryl esters can be correlated with barriers to isomerization around the C(acyl)–X (X = N, O) bond, thus providing a blueprint for the development of a broad range of novel coupling reactions of ester and amide electrophiles by the selective activation of C–O and C–N bonds.
  3. In this Special Issue on N-Heterocyclic Carbenes and Their Complexes in Catalysis, we report the first example of Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling of amides catalyzed by well-defined, air- and moisture-stable nickel/NHC (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene) complexes. The selective amide bond N–C(O) activation is achieved by half-sandwich, cyclopentadienyl [CpNi(NHC)Cl] complexes. The following order of reactivity of NHC ligands has been found: IPr > IMes > IPaul ≈ IPr*. Both the neutral and the cationic complexes are efficient catalysts for the Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling of amides. Kinetic studies demonstrate that the reactions are complete in < 1 h at 80 °C. Complete selectivity for the cleavage of exocyclic N-acyl bond has been observed under the experimental conditions. Given the utility of nickel catalysis in activating unreactive bonds, we believe that well-defined and bench-stable [CpNi(NHC)Cl] complexes will find broad application in amide bond and related cross-couplings of bench-stable acyl-electrophiles.
  4. Although the palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of aryl esters has received significant attention, there is a lack of methods that utilize cheap and readily accessible Pd-phosphane catalysts, and can be routinely carried out with high cross-coupling selectivity. Herein, we report the first general method for the cross-coupling of pentafluorophenyl esters (pentafluorophenyl = pfp) by selective C–O acyl cleavage. The reaction proceeds efficiently using Pd(0)/phosphane catalyst systems. The unique characteristics of pentafluorophenyl esters are reflected in the fully selective cross-coupling vs. phenolic esters. Of broad synthetic interest, this report establishes pentafluorophenyl esters as new, highly reactive, bench-stable, economical, ester-based, electrophilic acylative reagents via acyl-metal intermediates. Mechanistic studies strongly support a unified reactivity scale of acyl electrophiles by C(O)–X (X = N, O) activation. The reactivity of pfp esters can be correlated with barriers to isomerization around the C(acyl)–O bond.
  5. N-Acyl-hydantoins have emerged as novel acyl transfer reagents for the synthesis of ketones via selective N–C(O) cleavage. Herein, we report two new protocols for the cross-coupling of N-acyl-5,5-dimethylhydantoins using versatile and readily accessible Pd–PEPPSI or Pd/phosphine catalysts. The acyl Suzuki reactions afford biaryl ketones in good to excellent yields under operationally-simple conditions using commercially-available, bench- and air-stable twisted N-acyl-hydantoins as acyl donors. The method complements and expands on the previous protocol for the cross-coupling of N-acyl-hydantoins (Org. Process Res. Dev. 2018, 22, 1188).