skip to main content

Title: Suzuki–Miyaura Cross-Coupling of Amides Using Well-Defined, Air- and Moisture-Stable Nickel/NHC (NHC = N-Heterocyclic Carbene) Complexes
In this Special Issue on N-Heterocyclic Carbenes and Their Complexes in Catalysis, we report the first example of Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling of amides catalyzed by well-defined, air- and moisture-stable nickel/NHC (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene) complexes. The selective amide bond N–C(O) activation is achieved by half-sandwich, cyclopentadienyl [CpNi(NHC)Cl] complexes. The following order of reactivity of NHC ligands has been found: IPr > IMes > IPaul ≈ IPr*. Both the neutral and the cationic complexes are efficient catalysts for the Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling of amides. Kinetic studies demonstrate that the reactions are complete in < 1 h at 80 °C. Complete selectivity for the cleavage of exocyclic N-acyl bond has been observed under the experimental conditions. Given the utility of nickel catalysis in activating unreactive bonds, we believe that well-defined and bench-stable [CpNi(NHC)Cl] complexes will find broad application in amide bond and related cross-couplings of bench-stable acyl-electrophiles.
Authors:
; ;
Award ID(s):
1650766
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10146169
Journal Name:
Catalysts
Volume:
10
Issue:
4
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
372
ISSN:
2073-4344
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. The formation of amide bonds represents one of the most fundamental processes in organic synthesis. Transition-metal-catalyzed activation of acyclic twisted amides has emerged as an increasingly powerful platform in synthesis. Herein, we report the transamidation of N-activated twisted amides by selective N–C(O) cleavage mediated by air- and moisture-stable half-sandwich Ni(II)–NHC (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbenes) complexes. We demonstrate that the readily available cyclopentadienyl complex, [CpNi(IPr)Cl] (IPr = 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene), promotes highly selective transamidation of the N–C(O) bond in twisted N-Boc amides with non-nucleophilic anilines. The reaction provides access to secondary anilides via the non-conventional amide bond-forming pathway. Furthermore, the amidation of activatedmore »phenolic and unactivated methyl esters mediated by [CpNi(IPr)Cl] is reported. This study sets the stage for the broad utilization of well-defined, air- and moisture-stable Ni(II)–NHC complexes in catalytic amide bond-forming protocols by unconventional C(acyl)–N and C(acyl)–O bond cleavage reactions.« less
  2. The Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling has been widely recognized as one of the most important methods for the construction of C–C bonds. However, in contrast to traditional aryl halide or pseudohalide electrophiles, coupling reactions with unactivated C–N and C–O electrophiles have proven significantly more challenging. Here we report the first general palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of both common amides and aryl esters through the selective cleavage of the C–N and C–O bonds under exceedingly mild conditions. Notably, for the first time we demonstrate selective C(acyl)– N and C(acyl)–O cleavage/cross-coupling under the same reaction conditions. The reaction uses a commercially available, bench-stable and operationally-convenientmore »(n3-1-t-Bu-indenyl)Pd(IPr)(Cl) precatalyst. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the reactivity of generic amides and aryl esters can be correlated with barriers to isomerization around the C(acyl)–X (X = N, O) bond, thus providing a blueprint for the development of a broad range of novel coupling reactions of ester and amide electrophiles by the selective activation of C–O and C–N bonds.« less
  3. Abstract Amides are among the most important and ubiquitous functional groups in organic chemistry and process development. In this Practical Synthetic Procedure, a protocol for the Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling of amides by selective N–C(O) bond activation catalyzed by commercially available, air- and moisture-stable palladium/N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes is described. The procedure described involves [Pd(IPr)(cin)Cl] [IPr = 2,6-(diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene, cin = cinnamyl] at 0.10 mol% at room temperature and is performed on decagram scale. Furthermore, a procedure for the synthesis of amide starting materials is accomplished via selective N-tert-butoxycarbonylation, which is the preferred method over N-acylation. The present protocol carries advantages of operationalmore »simplicity, commercial availability of catalysts, and excellent conversions at low catalyst loadings. The method is generally useful for activation of N–C(O) amide bonds in a broad spectrum of amide precursors. The protocol should facilitate the implementation of amide cross-coupling reactions.« less
  4. We report a general, highly selective method for Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling of N-acylphthalimides via N–C(O) acyl cleavage catalyzed by Pd–PEPPSI-type precatalysts. Of broad synthetic interest, the method introduces N-acylphthalimides as new, bench-stable, highly reactive, twist-controlled, amide-based precursors to acyl-metal intermediates. The reaction delivers functionalized biaryl ketones by acylative Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling with readily available boronic acids. Studies demonstrate that cheap, easily prepared, and broadly applicable Pd–PEPPSI-type precatalysts supported by a sterically demanding IPr (1,3-Bis-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) ancillary ligand provide high yields in this reaction. Preliminary selectivity studies and the effect of Pd–N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) complexes with allyl-type throw-away ligands are described. We expect thatmore »N-acylphthalimides will find significant use as amide-based acyl coupling reagents and cross-coupling precursors to acyl-metal intermediates.« less
  5. The cross-coupling of aryl esters has emerged as a powerful platform for the functionalization of otherwise inert acyl C–O bonds in chemical synthesis and catalysis. Herein, we report a combined experimental and computational study on the acyl Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling of aryl esters mediated by well-defined, air- and moisture-stable Pd( ii )–NHC precatalysts [Pd(NHC)(μ-Cl)Cl] 2 . We present a comprehensive evaluation of [Pd(NHC)(μ-Cl)Cl] 2 precatalysts and compare them with the present state-of-the-art [(Pd(NHC)allyl] precatalysts bearing allyl-type throw-away ligands. Most importantly, the study reveals [Pd(NHC)(μ-Cl)Cl] 2 as the most reactive precatalysts discovered to date in this reactivity manifold. The unique synthetic utilitymore »of this unconventional O–C(O) cross-coupling is highlighted in the late-stage functionalization of pharmaceuticals and sequential chemoselective cross-coupling, providing access to valuable ketone products by a catalytic mechanism involving Pd insertion into the aryl ester bond. Furthermore, we present a comprehensive study of the catalytic cycle by DFT methods. Considering the clear advantages of [Pd(NHC)(μ-Cl)Cl] 2 precatalysts on several levels, including facile one-pot synthesis, superior atom-economic profile to all other Pd( ii )–NHC catalysts, and versatile reactivity, these should be considered as the ‘first-choice’ catalysts for all routine applications in ester O–C(O) bond activation.« less