skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Thursday, June 13 until 2:00 AM ET on Friday, June 14 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


Title: Mechanistic insights into hydrodeoxygenation of phenol on bimetallic phosphide catalysts
Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of phenolics is a necessary step for upgrading bio-oils to transportation fuels. Bimetallic catalysts offer the potential of increased activities and selectivities for desired products. Adding non-metallic elements, such as phosphorous, allows for charge distribution between the metal and nonmetal atoms, which improves Lewis acid character of catalytic surfaces. This work utilizes experimental and density functional theory (DFT) based calculations to identify potential C–O bond cleavage pathways and product selectivities for HDO reactions on FeMoP, RuMoP, and NiMoP catalysts. Our work demonstrates that FeMoP catalyst favors direct deoxygenation pathway due to a lower activation energy barrier for C–O bond cleavage whereas RuMoP and NiMoP catalysts promote ring hydrogenation first, followed by the cleavage of C–O bond. The Bader charge analysis indicates that for these catalytic systems Mo δ+ site bears a large positive charge which acts as a Lewis acid site for HDO reactions. Overall, we find that trends in the experimental product selectivities are in good agreement with that predicted with DFT calculations.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1752036
NSF-PAR ID:
10092602
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Catalysis Science & Technology
Volume:
8
Issue:
16
ISSN:
2044-4753
Page Range / eLocation ID:
4083 to 4096
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. The insertion of carbon dioxide into metal element σ-bonds is an important elementary step in many catalytic reactions for carbon dioxide valorization. Here, the insertion of carbon dioxide into a family of group 10 alkyl complexes of the type ( R PBP)M(CH 3 ) ( R PBP = B(NCH 2 PR 2 ) 2 C 6 H 4 − ; R = Cy or t Bu; M = Ni or Pd) to generate κ 1 -acetate complexes of the form ( R PBP)M{OC(O)CH 3 } is investigated. This involved the preparation and characterization of a number of new complexes supported by the unusual R PBP ligand, which features a central boryl donor that exerts a strong trans -influence, and the identification of a new decomposition pathway that results in C–B bond formation. In contrast to other group 10 methyl complexes supported by pincer ligands, carbon dioxide insertion into ( R PBP)M(CH 3 ) is facile and occurs at room temperature because of the high trans -influence of the boryl donor. Given the mild conditions for carbon dioxide insertion, we perform a rare kinetic study on carbon dioxide insertion into a late-transition metal alkyl species using ( t Bu PBP)Pd(CH 3 ). These studies demonstrate that the Dimroth–Reichardt parameter for a solvent correlates with the rate of carbon dioxide insertion and that Lewis acids do not promote insertion. DFT calculations indicate that insertion into ( t Bu PBP)M(CH 3 ) (M = Ni or Pd) proceeds via an S E 2 mechanism and we compare the reaction pathway for carbon dioxide insertion into group 10 methyl complexes with insertion into group 10 hydrides. Overall, this work provides fundamental insight that will be valuable for the development of improved and new catalysts for carbon dioxide utilization. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Activation of the dinitrogen triple bond is a crucial step in the overall fixation of atmospheric nitrogen into usable forms for industrial and biological applications. Current synthetic catalysts incorporate metal ions to facilitate the activation and cleavage of dinitrogen. The high price of metal‐based catalysts and the challenge of catalyst recovery during industrial catalytic processes has led to increasing interest in metal‐free catalysts. One step toward metal‐free catalysis is the use of frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs). In this study, we have examined 18 functionalized carbenes as FLPs to elucidate the influence of steric and electronic effects on the activation of dinitrogen. To test the effects of functionalization on dinitrogen activation, we have performed density functional theory (DFT), multireference, non and extended transition state‐natural orbital for chemical valence (ETS‐NOCV) calculations. Our results suggest that functional groups which introduce strong electron‐withdrawing effects and/or engage in extended π/π* systems lead to the lowering of the dissociation energy of the dinitrogen bond, which further contributes to greater nitrogen activation. We conjecture that these effects are due to enhanced back‐bonding capability of the p orbital of the carbene carbon atoms to the adjacent nitrogen atoms (increasing Lewis basicity of the carbene carbon atom) and enhanced stability of dissociated products. Our concluding remarks include opportunities to extend this activation study to explore the entire catalytic cycle with promising functionalized carbenes for experimental evaluation.

     
    more » « less
  3. The catalytic effects of iridium pincer complexes for the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide were investigated with the Unified Reaction Valley Approach (URVA), exploring the reaction mechanism along the reaction path traced out by the reacting species on the potential energy surface. Further details were obtained with the Local Mode Analysis performed at all stationary points, complemented by the Natural Bond Orbital and Bader’s Quantum Atoms in Molecules analyses. Each of the five reaction paths forming the catalytic cycle were calculated at the DFT level complemented with DLPNO-CCSD(T) single point calculations at the stationary points. For comparison, the non-catalytic reaction was also investigated. URVA curvature profiles identified all important chemical events taking place in the non-catalyzed reaction and in the five reactions forming the catalytic cycle, and their contribution to the activation energy was disclosed. The non-catalytic reaction has a large unfavorable activation energy of 76.3 kcal/mol, predominately caused by HH bond cleave in the H2 reactant. As shown by our study, the main function of the iridium pincer catalyst is to split up the one–step non-catalytic reaction into an energy efficient multistep cycle, where HH bond cleavage is replaced by the cleavage of a weaker IrH bond with a small contribution to the activation energy. The dissociation of the final product from the catalyst requires the cleavage of an IrO bond, which is also weak, and contributes only to a minor extent to the activation energy. This, in summary, leads to the substantial lowering of the overall activation barrier by about 50 kcal/mol for the catalyzed reaction. We hope that this study inspires the community to add URVA to their repertoire for the investigation of catalysis reactions. 
    more » « less
  4. Synthetic manganese catalysts that activate hydrogen peroxide perform a variety of hydrocarbon oxidation reactions. The most commonly proposed mechanism for these catalysts involves the generation of a manganese(iii)-hydroperoxo intermediate that decays via heterolytic O–O bond cleavage to generate a Mn( v)-oxo species that initiates substrate oxidation. Due to the paucity of well-defined Mn(III)-hydroperoxo complexes, Mn(III)-alkylperoxo complexes are often employed to understand the factors that affect the O–O cleavage reaction. Herein, we examine the decay pathways of the Mn(III)-alkylperoxo complexes [Mn(III)(OOtBu)(6Me dpaq)]+ and [Mn(III)(OOtBu)(N4S)]+, which have distinct coordination environments (N5− and N4S− , respectively). Through the use of density functional theory (DFT) calculations and comparisons with published experimental data, we are able to rationalize the differences in the decay pathways of these complexes. For the [Mn(III)(OOtBu)(N4S)]+ system, O–O homolysis proceeds via a two-state mechanism that involves a crossing from the quintet reactant to a triplet state. A high energy singlet state discourages O–O heterolysis for this complex. In contrast, while quintet–triplet crossing is unfavorable for [Mn(III)(OOtBu)(6Medpaq)]+, a relatively low-energy single state accounts for the observation of both O–O homolysis and heterolysis products for this complex. The origins of these differences in decay pathways are linked to variations in the electronic structures of the Mn(III)-alkylperoxo complexes. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract Carbon–carbon bond cleavage reactions, adapted to deconstruct aliphatic hydrocarbon polymers and recover the intrinsic energy and carbon value in plastic waste, have typically been catalysed by metal nanoparticles or air-sensitive organometallics. Metal oxides that serve as supports for these catalysts are typically considered to be inert. Here we show that Earth-abundant, non-reducible zirconia catalyses the hydrogenolysis of polyolefins with activity rivalling that of precious metal nanoparticles. To harness this unusual reactivity, our catalytic architecture localizes ultrasmall amorphous zirconia nanoparticles between two fused platelets of mesoporous silica. Macromolecules translocate from bulk through radial mesopores to the highly active zirconia particles, where the chains undergo selective hydrogenolytic cleavage into a narrow, C 18 -centred distribution. Calculations indicated that C–H bond heterolysis across a Zr–O bond of a Zr(O) 2 adatom model for unsaturated surface sites gives a zirconium hydrocarbyl, which cleaves a C–C bond via β-alkyl elimination. 
    more » « less