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Title: Synthesis of high-mannose oligosaccharides containing mannose-6-phosphate residues using regioselective glycosylation
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Author(s) / Creator(s):
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Date Published:
Journal Name:
Carbohydrate Research
Page Range / eLocation ID:
23 to 32
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. D-Mannosamine hydrochloride (2-amino-2-deoxy-D-mannose hydrochloride), C 6 H 14 NO 5 + ·Cl − , (I), crystallized from a methanol/ethyl acetate/ n -hexane solvent mixture at room temperature in a 4 C 1 chair conformation that is slightly distorted towards the C3,O5 B form. A comparison of the structural parameters of (I) with the corresponding parameters in α-D-glucosamine hydrochloride, (II), and β-D-galactosamine hydrochloride, (III)/(III′), was undertaken to evaluate the effects of ionic hydrogen bonding on structural properties. Three types of ionic hydrogen bonds are present in the crystals of (I)–(III)/(III′), i.e. N + —H...O, N + —H...Cl − , and O—H...Cl − . The exocyclic structural parameters in (I), (II), and (III)/(III′) appear to be most influenced by this bonding, especially the exocyclic hydroxy groups, which adopt eclipsed conformations enabled by ionic hydrogen bonding to the chloride anion. Anomeric disorder was observed in crystals of (I), with an α:β ratio of 37:63. However, anomeric configuration appears to exert minimal structural effects; that is, bond lengths, bond angles, and torsion angles are essentially identical in both anomers. The observed disorder at the anomeric C atom of (I) appears to be caused by the presence of the chloride anion and atom O3 or O4 in proximal voids, which provide opportunities for hydrogen bonding to atom O1 in both axial and equatorial orientations. 
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  2. Abstract

    Sugar alcohols are major photosynthetic products in plant species from the Apiaceae and Plantaginaceae families. Mannose-6-phosphate reductase (Man6PRase) and aldose-6-phosphate reductase (Ald6PRase) are key enzymes for synthesizing mannitol and glucitol in celery (Apium graveolens) and peach (Prunus persica), respectively. In this work, we report the first crystal structures of dimeric plant aldo/keto reductases (AKRs), celery Man6PRase (solved in the presence of mannonic acid and NADP+) and peach Ald6PRase (obtained in the apo form). Both structures displayed the typical TIM barrel folding commonly observed in proteins from the AKR superfamily. Analysis of the Man6PRase holo form showed that residues putatively involved in the catalytic mechanism are located close to the nicotinamide ring of NADP+, where the hydride transfer to the sugar phosphate should take place. Additionally, we found that Lys48 is important for the binding of the sugar phosphate. Interestingly, the Man6PRase K48A mutant had a lower catalytic efficiency with mannose-6-phosphate but a higher catalytic efficiency with mannose than the wild type. Overall, our work sheds light on the structure–function relationships of important enzymes to synthesize sugar alcohols in plants.

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  3. Abstract

    The mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) biosynthetic pathway for lysosome biogenesis has been studied for decades and is considered a well-understood topic. However, whether this pathway is regulated remains an open question. In a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 knockout screen, we discover TMEM251 as the first regulator of the M6P modification. Deleting TMEM251 causes mistargeting of most lysosomal enzymes due to their loss of M6P modification and accumulation of numerous undigested materials. We further demonstrate that TMEM251 localizes to the Golgi and is required for the cleavage and activity of GNPT, the enzyme that catalyzes M6P modification. In zebrafish, TMEM251 deletion leads to severe developmental defects including heart edema and skeletal dysplasia, which phenocopies Mucolipidosis Type II. Our discovery provides a mechanism for the newly discovered human disease caused by TMEM251 mutations. We name TMEM251 asGNPTABcleavage andactivityfactor (GCAF) and its related disease as Mucolipidosis Type V.

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