skip to main content

Title: Enhanced CO 2 electrolysis with a SrTiO 3 cathode through a dual doping strategy
The significant role of perovskite defect chemistry through A-site doping of strontium titanate with lanthanum for CO 2 electrolysis properties is demonstrated. Here we present a dual strategy of A-site deficiency and promoting adsorption/activation by making use of redox active dopants such as Mn/Cr linked to oxygen vacancies to facilitate CO 2 reduction at perovskite titanate cathode surfaces. Solid oxide electrolysers based on oxygen-excess La 0.2 Sr 0.8 Ti 0.9 Mn(Cr) 0.1 O 3+δ , A-site deficient (La 0.2 Sr 0.8 ) 0.9 Ti 0.9 Mn(Cr) 0.1 O 3−δ and undoped La 0.2 Sr 0.8 Ti 1.0 O 3+δ cathodes are evaluated. In situ infrared spectroscopy reveals that the adsorbed and activated CO 2 adopts an intermediate chemical state between a carbon dioxide molecule and a carbonate ion. The double strategy leads to optimal performance being observed after 100 h of high-temperature operation and 3 redox cycles, suggesting a promising cathode material for CO 2 electrolysis.
; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Journal of Materials Chemistry A
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
2764 to 2772
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Sr(Ti 0.3 Fe 0.7 )O 3−δ (STF) and the associated exsolution electrodes Sr 0.95 (Ti 0.3 Fe 0.63 Ru 0.07 )O 3−δ (STFR), or Sr 0.95 (Ti 0.3 Fe 0.63 Ni 0.07 )O 3−δ (STFN) are alternatives to Ni-based cermet fuel electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells (SOCs). They can provide improved tolerance to redox cycling and fuel impurities, and may allow direct operation with hydrocarbon fuels. However, such perovskite-oxide-based electrodes present processing challenges for co-sintering with thin electrolytes to make fuel electrode supported SOCs. Thus, they have been mostly limited to electrolyte-supported SOCs. Here, we report the first example of the application of perovskite oxide fuel electrodes in novel oxygen electrode supported SOCs (OESCs) with thin YSZ electrolytes, and demonstrate their excellent performance. The OESCs have La 0.8 Sr 0.2 MnO 3−δ –Zr 0.92 Y 0.16 O 2−δ (LSM–YSZ) oxygen electrode-supports that are enhanced via infiltration of SrTi 0.3 Fe 0.6 Co 0.1 O 3−δ , while the fuel electrodes are either Ni-YSZ, STF, STFN, or STFR. Fuel cell power density as high as 1.12 W cm −2 is obtained at 0.7 V and 800 °C in humidified hydrogen and air with the STFR electrode, 60% higher than themore »same cell made with a Ni-YSZ electrode. Electrolysis current density as high as −1.72 A cm −2 is obtained at 1.3 V and 800 °C in 50% H 2 O to 50% H 2 mode; the STFR cell yields a value 72% higher than the same cell made with a Ni-YSZ electrode, and competitive with the widely used conventional Ni-YSZ-supported cells. The high performance is due in part to the low resistance of the thin YSZ electrolyte, and also to the low fuel electrode polarization resistance, which decreases with fuel electrode in the order: Ni-YSZ > STF > STFN > STFR. The high performance of the latter two electrodes is due to exsolution of catalytic metal nanoparticles; the results are discussed in terms of the microstructure and properties of each electrode material, and surface oxygen exchange resistance values are obtained over a range of conditions for STF, STFN, and STFN. The STF fuel electrodes also provide good stability during redox cycling.« less
  2. Abstract

    Chemical looping air separation (CLAS) is a promising technology for oxygen generation with high efficiency. The key challenge for CLAS is to design robust oxygen sorbents with suitable redox properties and fast redox kinetics. In this work, perovskite-structured Sr1-xCaxFe1-yCoyO3oxygen sorbents were investigated and demonstrated for oxygen production with tunable redox properties, high redox rate, and excellent thermal/steam stability. Cobalt doping at B site was found to be highly effective, 33% improvement in oxygen productivity was observed at 500 °C. Moreover, it stabilizes the perovskite structure and prevents phase segregation under pressure swing conditions in the presence of steam. Scalable synthesis of Sr0.8Ca0.2Fe0.4Co0.6O3oxygen sorbents was carried out through solid state reaction, co-precipitation, and sol-gel methods. Both co-precipitation and sol-gel methods are capable of producing Sr0.8Ca0.2Fe0.4Co0.6O3sorbents with satisfactory phase purity, high oxygen capacity, and fast redox kinetics. Large scale evaluation of Sr0.8Ca0.2Fe0.4Co0.6O3, using an automated CLAS testbed with over 300 g sorbent loading, further demonstrated the effectiveness of the oxygen sorbent to produce 95% pure O2with a satisfactory productivity of 0.04 gO2gsorbent−1h−1at 600 °C.

  3. Sr(Ti 1−x Fe x )O 3−δ (STF) has recently been explored as an oxygen electrode for solid oxide electrochemical cells (SOCs). Model thin film electrode studies show oxygen surface exchange rates that generally improve with increasing Fe content when x < 0.5, and are comparable to the best Co-containing perovskite electrode materials. Recent results on porous electrodes with the specific composition Sr(Ti 0.3 Fe 0.7 )O 3−δ show excellent electrode performance and stability, but other compositions have not been tested. Here we report results for porous electrodes with a range of compositions from x = 0.5 to 0.9. The polarization resistance decreases with increasing Fe content up to x = 0.7, but increases for further increases in x . This results from the interaction of two effects – the oxygen solid state diffusion coefficient increases with increasing x , but the electrode surface area and surface oxygen exchange rate decrease due to increased sinterability and Sr surface segregation for the Fe-rich compositions. Symmetric cells showed no degradation during 1000 h life tests at 700 °C even at a current density of 1.5 A cm −2 , showing that all the STF electrode compositions worked stably in both fuel cell modemore »and electrolysis modes. The excellent stability may be explained by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) results showing that the amount of surface segregated Sr did not change during the long-term testing, and by relatively low polarization resistances that help avoid electrode delamination.« less
  4. The current study reports AxA’1-xByB’1-yO3-𝛿 perovskite redox catalysts (RCs) for CO2-splitting and methane partial oxidation (POx) in a cyclic redox scheme. Strontium (Sr) and iron (Fe) were chosen as A and B site elements with A’ being lanthanum (La), samarium (Sm) or yttrium (Y), and B’ being manganese (Mn), or titanium (Ti) to tailor their equilibrium oxygen partial pressures (P_(O_2 ) s) for CO2-splitting and methane partial oxidation. DFT calculations were performed for predictive optimization of the oxide materials whereas experimental investigation confirmed the DFT predicted redox performance. The redox kinetics of the RCs improved significantly by 1 wt.% ruthenium (Ru) impregnation without affecting their redox thermodynamics. Ru impregnated LaFe0.375Mn0.625O3 (A=0, A’=La, B=Fe, and B’=Mn) was the most promising RC in terms of its superior redox performance (CH4/CO2 conversion >90% and CO selectivity~ 95%) at 800oC. Long-term redox testing over Ru impregnated LaFe0.375Mn0.625O3 indicated stable performance during the first 30 cycles following with a ~25% decrease in the activity during the last 70 cycles. Air treatment was effective to reactivate the redox catalyst. Detailed characterizations revealed the underlying mechanism for redox catalyst deactivation and reactivation. This study not only validated a DFT guided mixed oxide design strategy for CO2 utilizationmore »but also provides potentially effective approaches to enhance redox kinetics as well as long-term redox catalyst performance.« less
  5. To directly use a CO 2 –CH 4 gas mixture for power and CO co-production by proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells (H-SOFCs), a layer of in situ reduced La 0.6 Sr 0.2 Cr 0.85 Ni 0.15 O 3−δ (LSCrN@Ni) is fabricated on a Ni–BaZr 0.1 Ce 0.7 Y 0.1 Yb 0.1 O 3−δ (BZCYYb) anode-supported H-SOFC (H-DASC) for on-cell CO 2 dry reforming of CH 4 (DRC). For demonstrating the effectiveness of LSCrN@Ni, a cell without adding the LSCrN@Ni catalyst (H-CASC) is also studied comparatively. Fueled with H 2 , both H-CASC and H-DASC show similar stable performance with a maximum power density ranging from 0.360 to 0.816 W cm −2 at temperatures between 550 and 700 °C. When CO 2 –CH 4 is used as the fuel, the performance and stability of H-CASC decreases considerably with a maximum power density of 0.287 W cm −2 at 700 °C and a sharp drop in cell voltage from the initial 0.49 to 0.10 V within 20 h at 0.6 A cm −2 . In contrast, H-DASC demonstrates a maximum power density of 0.605 W cm −2 and a stable cell voltage above 0.65 V for 65 h. This is attributed tomore »highly efficient on-cell DRC by LSCrN@Ni.« less