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Title: The VLA Nascent Disk and Multiplicity Survey of Perseus Protostars (VANDAM). V. 18 Candidate Disks around Class 0 and I Protostars in the Perseus Molecular Cloud
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Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal
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Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Abstract

    The HH 24 complex harbors five collimated jets emanating from a small protostellar multiple system. We have carried out a multiwavelength study of the jets, their driving sources, and the cloud core hosting the embedded stellar system, based on data from the Hubble Space Telescope, Gemini, Subaru, Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m, Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) telescopes. The data show that the multiple system, SSV 63, contains at least 7 sources, ranging in mass from the hydrogen-burning limit to proto-Herbig Ae stars. The stars are in an unstable nonhierarchical configuration, and one member, a borderline brown dwarf, is moving away from the protostellar system with 25 km s−1, after being ejected ∼5800 yr ago as an orphaned protostar. Five of the embedded sources are surrounded by small, possibly truncated, disks resolved at 1.3 mm with ALMA. Proper motions and radial velocities imply jet speeds of 200–300 km s−1. The two main HH 24 jets, E and C, form a bipolar jet system that traces the innermost portions of parsec-scale chains of Herbig–Haro and H2shocks with a total extent of at least 3 pc. H2CO and C18O observations show that the core has been churned and continuously fed by an infalling streamer.13CO and12CO trace compact, low-velocity, cavity walls carved by the jets and an ultracompact molecular outflow from the most embedded object. ChaoticN-body dynamics likely will eject several more of these objects. The ejection of stars from their feeding zones sets their masses. Dynamical decay of nonhierarchical systems can thus be a major contributor to establishing the initial mass function.

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  2. Abstract We present a comprehensive analysis of the evolution of envelopes surrounding protostellar systems in the Perseus molecular cloud using data from the MASSES survey. We focus our attention to the C 18 O(2–1) spectral line, and we characterize the shape, size, and orientation of 54 envelopes and measure their fluxes, velocity gradients, and line widths. To look for evolutionary trends, we compare these parameters to the bolometric temperature T bol , a tracer of protostellar age. We find evidence that the angular difference between the elongation angle of the C 18 O envelope and the outflow axis direction generally becomes increasingly perpendicular with increasing T bol , suggesting the envelope evolution is directly affected by the outflow evolution. We show that this angular difference changes at T bol = 53 ± 20 K, which includes the conventional delineation between Class 0 and I protostars of 70 K. We compare the C 18 O envelopes with larger gaseous structures in other molecular clouds and show that the velocity gradient increases with decreasing radius ( ∣  ∣ ∼ R − 0.72 ± 0.06 ). From the velocity gradients we show that the specific angular momentum follows a power-law fit J / M ∝ R 1.83±0.05 for scales from 1 pc down to ∼500 au, and we cannot rule out a possible flattening out at radii smaller than ∼1000 au. 
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