Simulating the effect of photoheating feedback during reionization
Abstract We present self-consistent radiation hydrodynamic simulations of hydrogen reionization performed with arepo-rt complemented by a state-of-the-art galaxy formation model. We examine how photoheating feedback, due to reionization, shapes the galaxies properties. Our fiducial model completes reionization by z ≈ 6 and matches observations of the Ly α forest, the cosmic microwave background electron scattering optical depth, the high-redshift ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function, and stellar mass function. Contrary to previous works, photoheating suppresses star formation rates by more than $50{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ only in haloes less massive than ∼108.4 M⊙ (∼108.8 M⊙) at z = 6 (z = 5), suggesting inefficient photoheating feedback from photons within galaxies. The use of a uniform UV background that heats up the gas at z ≈ 10.7 generates an earlier onset of suppression of star formation compared to our fiducial model. This discrepancy can be mitigated by adopting a UV background model with a more realistic reionization history. In the absence of stellar feedback, photoheating alone is only able to quench haloes less massive than ∼109 M⊙ at z ≳ 5, implying that photoheating feedback is sub-dominant in regulating star formation. In addition, stellar feedback, implemented as a non-local galactic wind scheme in the simulations, weakens the strength of photoheating feedback by reducing the amount more »
Authors:
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Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10104826
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume:
488
Issue:
1
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
419 to 437
ISSN:
0035-8711
1. ABSTRACT The cosmic near-infrared background (NIRB) offers a powerful integral probe of radiative processes at different cosmic epochs, including the pre-reionization era when metal-free, Population III (Pop III) stars first formed. While the radiation from metal-enriched, Population II (Pop II) stars likely dominates the contribution to the observed NIRB from the reionization era, Pop III stars – if formed efficiently – might leave characteristic imprints on the NIRB, thanks to their strong Lyα emission. Using a physically motivated model of first star formation, we provide an analysis of the NIRB mean spectrum and anisotropy contributed by stellar populations at z > 5. We find that in circumstances where massive Pop III stars persistently form in molecular cooling haloes at a rate of a few times $10^{-3}\, \mathrm{ M}_\odot \ \mathrm{yr}^{-1}$, before being suppressed towards the epoch of reionization (EoR) by the accumulated Lyman–Werner background, a unique spectral signature shows up redward of $1\, \mu$m in the observed NIRB spectrum sourced by galaxies at z > 5. While the detailed shape and amplitude of the spectral signature depend on various factors including the star formation histories, initial mass function, LyC escape fraction and so forth, the most interesting scenarios with efficientmore »
3. ABSTRACT We present an updated model of the cosmic ionizing background from the UV to the X-rays. Relative to our previous model, the new model provides a better match to a large number of up-to-date empirical constraints, including: (1) new galaxy and AGN luminosity functions; (2) stellar spectra including binary stars; (3) obscured and unobscured AGN; (4) a measurement of the non-ionizing UV background; (5) measurements of the intergalactic H i and He ii photoionization rates at z ∼ 0−6; (6) the local X-ray background; and (7) improved measurements of the intergalactic opacity. In this model, AGN dominate the H i ionizing background at z ≲ 3 and star-forming galaxies dominate it at higher redshifts. Combined with the steeply declining AGN luminosity function beyond z ∼ 2, the slow evolution of the H i ionization rate inferred from the high-redshift H i Ly α forest requires an escape fraction from star-forming galaxies that increases with redshift (a population-averaged escape fraction of $\approx 1{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ suffices to ionize the intergalactic medium at z = 3 when including the contribution from AGN). We provide effective photoionization and photoheating rates calibrated to match the Planck 2018 reionization optical depth and recent constraints from the He ii Ly α forestmore »
We introduce the Astrid  simulation, a large-scale cosmological hydrodynamic simulation in a $250 \, h^{-1}\mathrm{Mpc}$ box with 2 × 55003 particles. Astrid contains a large number of high redshift galaxies, which can be compared to future survey data, and resolves galaxies in haloes more massive than $2\times 10^9 \, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$. Astrid  has been run from z = 99 to 3. As a particular focus is modelling the high redshift Universe, it contains models for inhomogeneous hydrogen and helium reionization, baryon relative velocities and massive neutrinos, as well as supernova and AGN feedback. The black hole model includes mergers driven by dynamical friction rather than repositioning. We briefly summarize the implemented models, and the technical choices we took when developing the simulation code. We validate the model, showing good agreement with observed ultraviolet luminosity functions, galaxy stellar mass functions and specific star formation rates (SFRs). We show that the redshift at which a given galaxy underwent hydrogen reionization has a large effect on the halo gas fraction. Finally, at z = 6, haloes with $M \sim 2\times 10^9 \, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$ which have been reionized have an SFR 1.5 times greater than those which have not yet been reionized.