Constraint-based modeling has been applied to analyze metabolism of numerous organisms via flux balance analysis and genome-scale metabolic models, including mammalian cells such as the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells—the principal cell factory platform for therapeutic protein production. Unfortunately, the application of genome-scale model methodologies using the conventional biomass objective function is challenged by the presence of overly-restrictive constraints, including essential amino acid exchange fluxes that can lead to improper predictions of growth rates and intracellular flux distributions. In this study, these constraints are found to be reliably predicted by an “essential nutrient minimization” approach. After modifying these constraints with the predicted minimal uptake values, a series of unconventional objective functions are applied to minimize each individual non-essential nutrient uptake rate, revealing useful insights about metabolic exchange rates and flows across different cell lines and culture conditions. This unconventional uptake-rate objective functions (UOFs) approach is able to distinguish metabolic differences between three distinct CHO cell lines (CHO-K1, -DG44, and -S) not directly observed using the conventional biomass growth maximization solutions. Further, a comparison of model predictions with experimental data from literature correctly correlates with the specific CHO-DG44-derived cell line used experimentally, and the corresponding dual prices provide fruitful informationmore »
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Proceedings of the 25th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery & Data Mining
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 2202 to 2211
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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An unconventional uptake rate objective function approach enhances applicability of genome-scale models for mammalian cells
Accelerating flux balance calculations in genome-scale metabolic models by localizing the application of loopless constraints
Genome-scale metabolic network models and constraint-based modeling techniques have become important tools for analyzing cellular metabolism. Thermodynamically infeasible cycles (TICs) causing unbounded metabolic flux ranges are often encountered. TICs satisfy the mass balance and directionality constraints but violate the second law of thermodynamics. Current practices involve implementing additional constraints to ensure not only optimal but also loopless flux distributions. However, the mixed integer linear programming problems required to solve become computationally intractable for genome-scale metabolic models.
We aimed to identify the fewest needed constraints sufficient for optimality under the loopless requirement. We found that loopless constraints are required only for the reactions that share elementary flux modes representing TICs with reactions that are part of the objective function. We put forth the concept of localized loopless constraints (LLCs) to enforce this minimal required set of loopless constraints. By combining with a novel procedure for minimal null-space calculation, the computational time for loopless flux variability analysis (ll-FVA) is reduced by a factor of 10–150 compared to the original loopless constraints and by 4–20 times compared to the current fastest method Fast-SNP with the percent improvement increasing with model size. Importantly, LLCs offer a scalable strategy for loopless flux calculations formore »
Availability and implementation
Matlab functions are available in the Supplementary Material or at https://github.com/maranasgroup/lll-FVA
Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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Integration of Time-Series Transcriptomic Data with Genome-Scale CHO Metabolic Models for mAb EngineeringChinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the most commonly used cell lines in biopharmaceutical manufacturing. Genome-scale metabolic models have become a valuable tool to study cellular metabolism. Despite the presence of reference global genome-scale CHO model, context-specific metabolic models may still be required for specific cell lines (for example, CHO-K1, CHO-S, and CHO-DG44), and for specific process conditions. Many integration algorithms have been available to reconstruct specific genome-scale models. These methods are mainly based on integrating omics data (i.e., transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) into reference genome-scale models. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the impact of time points of transcriptomics integration on the genome-scale CHO model by assessing the prediction of growth rates with each reconstructed model. We also evaluated the feasibility of applying extracted models to different cell lines (generated from the same parental cell line). Our findings illustrate that gene expression at various stages of culture slightly impacts the reconstructed models. However, the prediction capability is robust enough on cell growth prediction not only across different growth phases but also in expansion to other cell lines.
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