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Title: Validation of Snow Multibands in the Comma Head of an Extratropical Cyclone Using a 40-Member Ensemble
Abstract

This paper investigates the ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model in simulating multiple small-scale precipitation bands (multibands) within the extratropical cyclone comma head using four winter storm cases from 2014 to 2017. Using the model output, some physical processes are explored to investigate band prediction. A 40-member WRF ensemble was constructed down to 2-km grid spacing over the Northeast United States using different physics, stochastic physics perturbations, different initial/boundary conditions from the first five perturbed members of the Global Forecast System (GFS) Ensemble Reforecast (GEFSR), and a stochastic kinetic energy backscatter scheme (SKEBS). It was found that 2-km grid spacing is adequate to resolve most snowbands. A feature-based verification is applied to hourly WRF reflectivity fields from each ensemble member and the WSR-88D radar reflectivity at 2-km height above sea level. The Method for Object-Based Diagnostic Evaluation (MODE) tool is used for identifying multibands, which are defined as two or more bands that are 5–20 km in width and that also exhibit a >2:1 aspect ratio. The WRF underpredicts the number of multibands and has a slight eastward position bias. There is no significant difference in frontogenetical forcing, vertical stability, moisture, and vertical shear between the banded versus nonbanded members. Underpredicted band members tend to have slightly stronger frontogenesis than observed, which may be consolidating the bands, but overall there is no clear linkage in ambient condition errors and band errors, thus leaving the source for the band underprediction motivation for future work.

 
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NSF-PAR ID:
10113487
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  
Publisher / Repository:
American Meteorological Society
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Weather and Forecasting
Volume:
34
Issue:
5
ISSN:
0882-8156
Page Range / eLocation ID:
p. 1343-1363
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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