Expanded hydrated vanadate for high-performance aqueous zinc-ion batteries
Hydrated vanadates are promising layered cathodes for aqueous zinc-ion batteries owing to their specific capacity as high as 400 mA h g −1 ; however, the structural instability causes serious cycling degradation through repeated intercalation/deintercalation reactions. This study reveals the chemically inserted Mn( ii ) cations act as structural pillars, expand the interplanar spacing, connect the adjacent layers and partially reduce pentavalent vanadium cations to tetravalent. The expanded interplanar spacing to 12.9 Å reduces electrostatic interactions, and transition metal cations collectively promote and catalyze fast and more zinc ion intercalation at higher discharge current densities with much enhanced reversibility and cycling stability. Manganese expanded hydrated vanadate (MnVO) delivers a specific capacity of 415 mA h g −1 at a current density of 50 mA g −1 and 260 mA h g −1 at 4 A g −1 with a capacity retention of 92% over 2000 cycles. The energy efficiency increases from 41% for hydrated vanadium pentoxide (VOH) to 70% for MnVO at 4 A g −1 and the open circuit voltage remains at 85% of the cutoff voltage in the MnVO battery on the shelf after 50 days. Expanded hydrated vanadate with other transition metal cations for high-performance aqueous zinc-ion more »
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Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10121544
Journal Name:
Energy & Environmental Science
Volume:
12
Issue:
7
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
2273 to 2285
ISSN:
1754-5692
3. Abstract Ammonium vanadate with bronze structure (NH 4 V 4 O 10 ) is a promising cathode material for zinc-ion batteries due to its high specific capacity and low cost. However, the extraction of $${\text{NH}}_{{4}}^{ + }$$ NH 4 + at a high voltage during charge/discharge processes leads to irreversible reaction and structure degradation. In this work, partial $${\text{NH}}_{{4}}^{ + }$$ NH 4 + ions were pre-removed from NH 4 V 4 O 10 through heat treatment; NH 4 V 4 O 10 nanosheets were directly grown on carbon cloth through hydrothermal method. Deficient NH 4 V 4 O 10 (denoted as NVO), with enlarged interlayer spacing, facilitated fast zinc ions transport and high storage capacity and ensured the highly reversible electrochemical reaction and the good stability of layered structure. The NVO nanosheets delivered a high specific capacity of 457 mAh g −1 at a current density of 100 mA g −1 and a capacity retention of 81% over 1000 cycles at 2 A g −1 . The initial Coulombic efficiency of NVO could reach up to 97% compared to 85% of NH 4 V 4 O 10 and maintain almost 100% during cycling, indicating the high reaction reversibility in NVO electrode.