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Title: New scaling relations to compute atom-in-material polarizabilities and dispersion coefficients: part 2. Linear-scaling computational algorithms and parallelization
We present two algorithms to compute system-specific polarizabilities and dispersion coefficients such that required memory and computational time scale linearly with increasing number of atoms in the unit cell for large systems. The first algorithm computes the atom-in-material (AIM) static polarizability tensors, force-field polarizabilities, and C 6 , C 8 , C 9 , C 10 dispersion coefficients using the MCLF method. The second algorithm computes the AIM polarizability tensors and C 6 coefficients using the TS-SCS method. Linear-scaling computational cost is achieved using a dipole interaction cutoff length function combined with iterative methods that avoid large dense matrix multiplies and large matrix inversions. For MCLF, Richardson extrapolation of the screening increments is used. For TS-SCS, a failproof conjugate residual (FCR) algorithm is introduced that solves any linear equation system having Hermitian coefficients matrix. These algorithms have mathematically provable stable convergence that resists round-off errors. We parallelized these methods to provide rapid computation on multi-core computers. Excellent parallelization efficiencies were obtained, and adding parallel processors does not significantly increase memory requirements. This enables system-specific polarizabilities and dispersion coefficients to be readily computed for materials containing millions of atoms in the unit cell. The largest example studied herein is an ice more » crystal containing >2 million atoms in the unit cell. For this material, the FCR algorithm solved a linear equation system containing >6 million rows, 7.57 billion interacting atom pairs, 45.4 billion stored non-negligible matrix components used in each large matrix-vector multiplication, and ∼19 million unknowns per frequency point (>300 million total unknowns). « less
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RSC Advances
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
33310 to 33336
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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Using the offline decoder and postprocessor, the model performed at 36.23% sensitivity with 9.52 FAs per 24 hours. The trained model was then evaluated with the online modules. The current performance of the overall online system is 45.80% sensitivity with 28.14 FAs per 24 hours. Table 2 summarizes the performances of these systems. The performance of the online system deviates from the offline P1 model because the online postprocessor fails to combine the events as the seizure probability fluctuates during an event. The modules in the online system add a total of 11.1 seconds of delay for processing each second of the data, as shown in Figure 3. In practice, we also count the time for loading the model and starting the visualizer block. When we consider these facts, the system consumes 15 seconds to display the first hypothesis. The system detects seizure onsets with an average latency of 15 seconds. Implementing an automatic seizure detection model in real time is not trivial. We used a variety of techniques such as the file locking mechanism, multithreading, circular buffers, real-time event decoding, and signal-decision plotting to realize the system. A video demonstrating the system is available at: The final conference submission will include a more detailed analysis of the online performance of each module. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Research reported in this publication was most recently supported by the National Science Foundation Partnership for Innovation award number IIP-1827565 and the Pennsylvania Commonwealth Universal Research Enhancement Program (PA CURE). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official views of any of these organizations. REFERENCES [1] A. Craik, Y. He, and J. L. Contreras-Vidal, “Deep learning for electroencephalogram (EEG) classification tasks: a review,” J. Neural Eng., vol. 16, no. 3, p. 031001, 2019. [2] A. C. Bridi, T. Q. 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