skip to main content

Title: Information Diffusion Prediction via Recurrent Cascades Convolution
Effectively predicting the size of an information cascade is critical for many applications spanning from identifying viral marketing and fake news to precise recommendation and online advertising. Traditional approaches either heavily depend on underlying diffusion models and are not optimized for popularity prediction, or use complicated hand-crafted features that cannot be easily generalized to different types of cascades. Recent generative approaches allow for understanding the spreading mechanisms, but with unsatisfactory prediction accuracy. To capture both the underlying structures governing the spread of information and inherent dependencies between re-tweeting behaviors of users, we propose a semi-supervised method, called Recurrent Cascades Convolutional Networks (CasCN), which explicitly models and predicts cascades through learning the latent representation of both structural and temporal information, without involving any other features. In contrast to the existing single, undirected and stationary Graph Convolutional Networks (GCNs), CasCN is a novel multi-directional/dynamic GCN. Our experiments conducted on real-world datasets show that CasCN significantly improves the prediction accuracy and reduces the computational cost compared to state-of-the-art approaches.
Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1823279 1823267
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10122600
Journal Name:
35th {IEEE} International Conference on Data Engineering, {ICDE} 2019, Macao, China, April 8-11, 2019
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
770 to 781
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Effectively modeling and predicting the information cascades is at the core of understanding the information diffusion, which is essential for many related downstream applications, such as fake news detection and viral marketing identification. Conventional methods for cascade prediction heavily depend on the hypothesis of diffusion models and hand-crafted features. Owing to the significant recent successes of deep learning in multiple domains, attempts have been made to predict cascades by developing neural networks based approaches. However, the existing models are not capable of capturing both the underlying structure of a cascade graph and the node sequence in the diffusion process which, in turn, results in unsatisfactory prediction performance. In this paper, we propose a deep multi-task learning framework with a novel design of shared-representation layer to aid in explicitly understanding and predicting the cascades. As it turns out, the learned latent representation from the shared-representation layer can encode the structure and the node sequence of the cascade very well. Our experiments conducted on real-world datasets demonstrate that our method can significantly improve the prediction accuracy and reduce the computational cost compared to state-of-the-art baselines.
  2. Learning representations of sets of nodes in a graph is crucial for applications ranging from node-role discovery to link prediction and molecule classification. Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have achieved great success in graph representation learning. However, expressive power of GNNs is limited by the 1-Weisfeiler-Lehman (WL) test and thus GNNs generate identical representations for graph substructures that may in fact be very different. More powerful GNNs, proposed recently by mimicking higher-order-WL tests, only focus on representing entire graphs and they are computationally inefficient as they cannot utilize sparsity of the underlying graph. Here we propose and mathematically analyze a general class of structure related features, termed Distance Encoding (DE). DE assists GNNs in representing any set of nodes, while providing strictly more expressive power than the 1-WL test. DE captures the distance between the node set whose representation is to be learned and each node in the graph. To capture the distance DE can apply various graph-distance measures such as shortest path distance or generalized PageRank scores. We propose two ways for GNNs to use DEs (1) as extra node features, and (2) as controllers of message aggregation in GNNs. Both approaches can utilize the sparse structure of the underlyingmore »graph, which leads to computational efficiency and scalability. We also prove that DE can distinguish node sets embedded in almost all regular graphs where traditional GNNs always fail. We evaluate DE on three tasks over six real networks: structural role prediction, link prediction, and triangle prediction. Results show that our models outperform GNNs without DE by up-to 15% in accuracy and AUROC. Furthermore, our models also significantly outperform other state-of-the-art methods especially designed for the above tasks.« less
  3. Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) are a powerful tool for machine learning on graphs. GNNs combine node feature information with the graph structure by recursively passing neural messages along edges of the input graph. However, incorporating both graph structure and feature information leads to complex models and explaining predictions made by GNNs remains unsolved. Here we propose GNNEXPLAINER, the first general, model-agnostic approach for providing interpretable explanations for predictions of any GNN-based model on any graph-based machine learning task. Given an instance, GNNEXPLAINER identifies a compact subgraph structure and a small subset of node features that have a crucial role in GNN’s prediction. Further, GNNEXPLAINER can generate consistent and concise explanations for an entire class of instances. We formulate GNNEXPLAINER as an optimization task that maximizes the mutual information between a GNN’s prediction and distribution of possible subgraph structures. Experiments on synthetic and real-world graphs show that our approach can identify important graph structures as well as node features, and outperforms alternative baseline approaches by up to 43.0% in explanation accuracy. GNNEXPLAINER provides a variety of benefits, from the ability to visualize semantically relevant structures to interpretability, to giving insights into errors of faulty GNNs.
  4. Abstract Background Estimation of the accuracy (quality) of protein structural models is important for both prediction and use of protein structural models. Deep learning methods have been used to integrate protein structure features to predict the quality of protein models. Inter-residue distances are key information for predicting protein’s tertiary structures and therefore have good potentials to predict the quality of protein structural models. However, few methods have been developed to fully take advantage of predicted inter-residue distance maps to estimate the accuracy of a single protein structural model. Result We developed an attentive 2D convolutional neural network (CNN) with channel-wise attention to take only a raw difference map between the inter-residue distance map calculated from a single protein model and the distance map predicted from the protein sequence as input to predict the quality of the model. The network comprises multiple convolutional layers, batch normalization layers, dense layers, and Squeeze-and-Excitation blocks with attention to automatically extract features relevant to protein model quality from the raw input without using any expert-curated features. We evaluated DISTEMA’s capability of selecting the best models for CASP13 targets in terms of ranking loss of GDT-TS score. The ranking loss of DISTEMA is 0.079, lower thanmore »several state-of-the-art single-model quality assessment methods. Conclusion This work demonstrates that using raw inter-residue distance information with deep learning can predict the quality of protein structural models reasonably well. DISTEMA is freely at https://github.com/jianlin-cheng/DISTEMA« less
  5. The automatic classification of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals has played an important role in cardiovascular diseases diagnosis and prediction. Deep neural networks (DNNs), particularly Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), have excelled in a variety of intelligent tasks including biomedical and health informatics. Most the existing approaches either partition the ECG time series into a set of segments and apply 1D-CNNs or divide the ECG signal into a set of spectrogram images and apply 2D-CNNs. These studies, however, suffer from the limitation that temporal dependencies between 1D segments or 2D spectrograms are not considered during network construction. Furthermore, meta-data including gender and age has not been well studied in these researches. To address those limitations, we propose a multi-module Recurrent Convolutional Neural Networks (RCNNs) consisting of both CNNs to learn spatial representation and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) to model the temporal relationship. Our multi-module RCNNs architecture is designed as an end-to-end deep framework with four modules: (i) timeseries module by 1D RCNNs which extracts spatio-temporal information of ECG time series; (ii) spectrogram module by 2D RCNNs which learns visual-temporal representation of ECG spectrogram ; (iii) metadata module which vectorizes age and gender information; (iv) fusion module which semantically fuses the information from threemore »above modules by a transformer encoder. Ten-fold cross validation was used to evaluate the approach on the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database (MIT-BIH) under different network configurations. The experimental results have proved that our proposed multi-module RCNNs with transformer encoder achieves the state-of-the-art with 99.14% F1 score and 98.29% accuracy.« less