Categorizing documents into a given label hierarchy is intuitively appealing due to the ubiquity of hierarchical topic structures in massive text corpora. Although related studies have achieved satisfying performance in fully supervised hierarchical document classification, they usually require massive human-annotated training data and only utilize text information. However, in many domains, (1) annotations are quite expensive where very few training samples can be acquired; (2) documents are accompanied by metadata information. Hence, this paper studies how to integrate the label hierarchy, metadata, and text signals for document categorization under weak supervision. We develop HiMeCat, an embedding-based generative framework for our task. Specifically, we propose a novel joint representation learning module that allows simultaneous modeling of category dependencies, metadata information and textual semantics, and we introduce a data augmentation module that hierarchically synthesizes training documents to complement the original, small-scale training set. Our experiments demonstrate a consistent improvement of HiMeCat over competitive baselines and validate the contribution of our representation learning and data augmentation modules.
Weakly-Supervised Hierarchical Text Classification
Hierarchical text classification, which aims to classify text documents into a given hierarchy, is an important task in many real-world applications. Recently, deep neural models are gaining increasing popularity for text classification due to their expressive power and minimum requirement for feature engineering. However, applying deep neural networks for hierarchical text classification remains challenging, because they heavily rely on a large amount of training data and meanwhile cannot easily determine appropriate levels of documents in the hierarchical setting. In this paper, we propose a weakly-supervised neural method for hierarchical text classification. Our method does not require a large amount of training data but requires only easy-to-provide weak supervision signals such as a few class-related documents or keywords. Our method effectively leverages such weak supervision signals to generate pseudo documents for model pre-training, and then performs self-training on real unlabeled data to iteratively refine the model. During the training process, our model features a hierarchical neural structure, which mimics the given hierarchy and is capable of determining the proper levels for documents with a blocking mechanism. Experiments on three datasets from different domains demonstrate the efficacy of our method compared with a comprehensive set of baselines.
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 6826 to 6833
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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