Wireframe DNA origami has emerged as a powerful approach to fabricating nearly arbitrary 2D and 3D geometries at the nanometer-scale. Complex scaffold and staple routing needed to design wireframe DNA origami objects, however, render fully automated, geometry-based sequence design approaches essential for their synthesis. And wireframe DNA origami structural fidelity can be limited by wireframe edges that are composed only of one or two duplexes. Here we introduce a fully automated computational approach that programs 2D wireframe origami assemblies using honeycomb edges composed of six parallel duplexes. These wireframe assemblies show enhanced structural fidelity from electron microscopy-based measurement of programmed angles compared with identical geometries programmed using dual-duplex edges. Molecular dynamics provides additional theoretical support for the enhanced structural fidelity observed. Application of our top-down sequence design procedure to a variety of complex objects demonstrates its broad utility for programmable 2D nanoscale materials.
Programming Structured DNA Assemblies to Probe Biophysical Processes
Structural DNA nanotechnology is beginning to emerge as a widely accessible research tool to mechanistically study diverse biophysical processes. Enabled by scaffolded DNA origami in which a long single strand of DNA is weaved throughout an entire target nucleic acid assembly to ensure its proper folding, assemblies of nearly any geometric shape can now be programmed in a fully automatic manner to interface with biology on the 1–100-nm scale. Here, we review the major design and synthesis principles that have enabled the fabrication of a specific subclass of scaffolded DNA origami objects called wireframe assemblies. These objects offer unprecedented control over the nanoscale organization of biomolecules, including biomolecular copy numbers, presentation on convex or concave geometries, and internal versus external functionalization, in addition to stability in physiological buffer. To highlight the power and versatility of this synthetic structural biology approach to probing molecular and cellular biophysics, we feature its application to three leading areas of investigation: light harvesting and nanoscale energy transport, RNA structural biology, and immune receptor signaling, with an outlook toward unique mechanistic insight that may be gained in these areas in the coming decade.
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Annual Review of Biophysics
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 395 to 419
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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