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Title: Radio Spectroscopic Imaging of a Solar Flare Termination Shock: Split-band Feature as Evidence for Shock Compression
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Award ID(s):
1654382 1735405 1723436 1723313 1735525 1735414
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Abstract

    The goal of classifying shock metamorphic features in meteorites is to estimate the corresponding shock pressure conditions. However, the temperature variability of shock metamorphism is equally important and can result in a diverse and heterogeneous set of shock features in samples with a common overall shock pressure. In particular, high-pressure (HP) minerals, which were previously used as a solid indicator of high shock pressure in meteorites, require complex pressure–temperature–time (P–T–t) histories to form and survive. First, parts of the sample must be heated to melting temperatures, at high pressure, to enable rapid formation of HP minerals before pressure release. Second, the HP minerals must be rapidly cooled to below a critical temperature, before the pressure returns to ambient conditions, to avoid retrograde transformation to their low-pressure polymorphs. These two constraints require the sample to contain large temperature heterogeneities, e.g. melt veins in a cooler groundmass, during shock. In this study, we calculated shock temperatures and possibleP–Tpaths of chondritic and differentiated mafic–ultramafic rocks for various shock pressures. TheseP–Tconditions and paths, combined with observations from shocked meteorites, are used to constrain shock conditions andP–Tthistories of HP-mineral bearing samples. The need for rapid thermal quench of HP phases requires a relatively lowmore »bulk-shock temperature and therefore moderate shock pressures below ~ 30 GPa, which matches the stabilities of these HP minerals. The low-temperature moderate-pressure host rock generally shows moderate shock-deformation features consistent with S4 and, less commonly, S5 shock stages. Shock pressures in excess of 50 GPa in meteorites result in melt breccias with high overall post-shock temperatures that anneal out HP-mineral signatures. The presence of ringwoodite, which is commonly considered an indicator of the S6 shock stage, is inconsistent with pressures in excess of 30 GPa and does not represent shock conditions different from S4 shock conditions. Indeed, ringwoodite and coexisting HP minerals should be considered as robust evidence for moderate shock pressures (S4) rather than extreme shock (S6) near whole-rock melting.

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  2. Abstract

    Septic shock is a life-threatening condition in which timely treatment substantially reduces mortality. Reliable identification of patients with sepsis who are at elevated risk of developing septic shock therefore has the potential to save lives by opening an early window of intervention. We hypothesize the existence of a novel clinical state of sepsis referred to as the “pre-shock” state, and that patients with sepsis who enter this state are highly likely to develop septic shock at some future time. We apply three different machine learning techniques to the electronic health record data of 15,930 patients in the MIMIC-III database to test this hypothesis. This novel paradigm yields improved performance in identifying patients with sepsis who will progress to septic shock, as defined by Sepsis- 3 criteria, with the best method achieving a 0.93 area under the receiver operating curve, 88% sensitivity, 84% specificity, and median early warning time of 7 hours. Additionally, we introduce the notion of patient-specific positive predictive value, assigning confidence to individual predictions, and achieving values as high as 91%. This study demonstrates that early prediction of impending septic shock, and thus early intervention, is possible many hours in advance.