skip to main content

Title: Synthesis of α′′-Fe 16 N 2 ribbons with a porous structure
The microstructure of FeCuB ribbons (∼20 μm thick) was modified to fabricate α′′-Fe 16 N 2 at a temperature as low as 160 °C. The ribbon samples were heat treated first at a temperature reaching 930 °C and then quenched down to room temperature. During the heat treatment, ribbon samples were oxidized, and hydrogen reduction was then conducted to remove the oxygen from the ribbon samples. The reduced ribbon samples had a porous structure, which improved the nitrogen diffusion efficiency and decreased the fabrication temperature of α′′-Fe 16 N 2 down to 160 °C. It was demonstrated that the techniques for microstructure control in this method including oxidation and reduction helped obtain the α′′-Fe 16 N 2 phase with high coercivity, thus manifesting this could be a promising technique for low-temperature nitridation on ribbons in general.
; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Nanoscale Advances
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
1337 to 1342
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. ABSTRACT We present a systematic investigation of physical conditions and elemental abundances in four optically thick Lyman-limit systems (LLSs) at z = 0.36–0.6 discovered within the cosmic ultraviolet baryon survey (CUBS). Because intervening LLSs at z < 1 suppress far-UV (ultraviolet) light from background QSOs, an unbiased search of these absorbers requires a near-UV-selected QSO sample, as achieved by CUBS. CUBS LLSs exhibit multicomponent kinematic structure and a complex mix of multiphase gas, with associated metal transitions from multiple ionization states such as C ii, C iii, N iii, Mg ii, Si ii, Si iii, O ii, O iii, O vi, and Fe ii absorption that span several hundred km s−1 in line-of-sight velocity. Specifically, higher column density components (log N(H i)/cm−2≳ 16) in all four absorbers comprise dynamically cool gas with $\langle T \rangle =(2\pm 1) \times 10^4\,$K and modest non-thermal broadening of $\langle b_\mathrm{nt} \rangle =5\pm 3\,$km s−1. The high quality of the QSO absorption spectra allows us to infer the physical conditions of the gas, using a detailed ionization modelling that takes into account the resolved component structures of H i and metal transitions. The range of inferred gas densities indicates that these absorbers consist of spatially compact clouds with a median line-of-sight thickness of $160^{+140}_{-50}$ pc. While obtaining robust metallicitymore »constraints for the low density, highly ionized phase remains challenging due to the uncertain $N\mathrm{(H\, {\small I})}$, we demonstrate that the cool-phase gas in LLSs has a median metallicity of $\mathrm{[\alpha /H]_{1/2}}=-0.7^{+0.1}_{-0.2}$, with a 16–84 percentile range of [α/H] = (−1.3, −0.1). Furthermore, the wide range of inferred elemental abundance ratios ([C/α], [N/α], and [Fe/α]) indicate a diversity of chemical enrichment histories. Combining the absorption data with deep galaxy survey data characterizing the galaxy environment of these absorbers, we discuss the physical connection between star-forming regions in galaxies and diffuse gas associated with optically thick absorption systems in the z < 1 circumgalactic medium.« less
  2. We report on growth and electrical properties of α-Ga 2 O 3 films prepared by halide vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) at 500 °C on α-Cr 2 O 3 buffers predeposited on sapphire by magnetron sputtering. The α-Cr 2 O 3 buffers showed a wide microcathodoluminescence (MCL) peak near 350 nm corresponding to the α-Cr 2 O 3 bandgap and a sharp MCL line near 700 nm due to the Cr + intracenter transition. Ohmic contacts to Cr 2 O 3 were made with both Ti/Au or Ni, producing linear current–voltage ( I– V) characteristics over a wide temperature range with an activation energy of conductivity of ∼75 meV. The sign of thermoelectric power indicated p-type conductivity of the buffers. Sn-doped, 2- μm-thick α-Ga 2 O 3 films prepared on this buffer by HVPE showed donor ionization energies of 0.2–0.25 eV, while undoped films were resistive with the Fermi level pinned at E C of 0.3 eV. The I– V and capacitance–voltage ( C– V) characteristics of Ni Schottky diodes on Sn-doped samples using a Cr 2 O 3 buffer indicated the presence of two face-to-face junctions, one between n-Ga 2 O 3 and p-Cr 2 O 3 , the other due to the Ni Schottky diodemore »with n-Ga 2 O 3 . The spectral dependence of the photocurrent measured on the structure showed the presence of three major deep traps with optical ionization thresholds near 1.3, 2, and 2.8 eV. Photoinduced current transient spectroscopy spectra of the structures were dominated by deep traps with an ionization energy of 0.95 eV. These experiments suggest another pathway to obtain p–n heterojunctions in the α-Ga 2 O 3 system.« less
  3. Abstract. Trichodesmium species, as a group of photosynthetic N2 fixers(diazotrophs), play an important role in the marine biogeochemical cycles ofnitrogen and carbon, especially in oligotrophic waters. How ongoing oceanwarming may interact with light availability to affect Trichodesmium is not yet clear. Wegrew Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS 101 at three temperature levels of 23, 27, and 31∘C undergrowth-limiting and growth-saturating light levels of 50 and 160 µmol quanta m−2 s−1, respectively, for at least 10 generations and thenmeasured physiological performance, including the specific growth rate, N2fixation rate, and photosynthesis. Light availability significantly modulatedthe growth response of Trichodesmium to temperature, with the specific growth ratepeaking at ∼27∘C under the light-saturatingconditions, while growth of light-limited cultures was non-responsive acrossthe tested temperatures (23, 27, and 31∘C). Short-term thermalresponses for N2 fixation indicated that both high growth temperatureand light intensity increased the optimum temperature (Topt) forN2 fixation and decreased its susceptibility to supra-optimaltemperatures (deactivation energy – Eh). Simultaneously, alllight-limited cultures with low Topt and high Eh were unable tosustain N2 fixation during short-term exposure to high temperatures (33–34∘C) that are not lethal for the cells grown underlight-saturating conditions. Our results imply that Trichodesmium spp. growing under lowlight levels while distributed deep in the euphotic zone or under cloudyweather conditions might be lessmore »sensitive to long-term temperature changesthat occur on the timescale of multiple generations but are more susceptible toabrupt (less than one generation time span) temperature changes, such asthose induced by cyclones and heat waves.« less
  4. Colwellia psychrerythraea34H is a model psychrophilic bacterium found in the cold ocean—polar sediments, sea ice, and the deep sea. Although the genomes of such psychrophiles have been sequenced, their metabolic strategies at low temperature have not been quantified. We measured the metabolic fluxes and gene expression of 34H at 4 °C (the mean global-ocean temperature and a normal-growth temperature for 34H), making comparative analyses at room temperature (above its upper-growth temperature of 18 °C) and with mesophilicEscherichia coli. When grown at 4 °C, 34H utilized multiple carbon substrates without catabolite repression or overflow byproducts; its anaplerotic pathways increased flux network flexibility and enabled CO2fixation. In glucose-only medium, the Entner–Doudoroff (ED) pathway was the primary glycolytic route; in lactate-only medium, gluconeogenesis and the glyoxylate shunt became active. In comparison,E. coli, cold stressed at 4 °C, had rapid glycolytic fluxes but no biomass synthesis. At their respective normal-growth temperatures, intracellular concentrations of TCA cycle metabolites (α-ketoglutarate, succinate, malate) were 4–17 times higher in 34H than inE. coli, while levels of energy molecules (ATP, NADH, NADPH) were 10- to 100-fold lower. Experiments withE. colimutants supported the thermodynamic advantage of the ED pathway at cold temperature. Heat-stressed 34H at room temperature (2 hours) revealedmore »significant down-regulation of genes associated with glycolytic enzymes and flagella, while 24 hours at room temperature caused irreversible cellular damage. We suggest that marine heterotrophic bacteria in general may rely upon simplified metabolic strategies to overcome thermodynamic constraints and thrive in the cold ocean.

    « less
  5. Abstract We report on the development and extensive characterization of co-sputtered tantala–zirconia (Ta 2 O 5 -ZrO 2 ) thin films, with the goal to decrease coating Brownian noise in present and future gravitational-wave detectors. We tested a variety of sputtering processes of different energies and deposition rates, and we considered the effect of different values of cation ratio η = Zr/(Zr + Ta) and of post-deposition heat treatment temperature T a on the optical and mechanical properties of the films. Co-sputtered zirconia proved to be an efficient way to frustrate crystallization in tantala thin films, allowing for a substantial increase of the maximum annealing temperature and hence for a decrease of coating mechanical loss φ c . The lowest average coating loss was observed for an ion-beam sputtered sample with η = 0.485 ± 0.004 annealed at 800 °C, yielding φ ¯ c = 1.8 × 1 0 − 4 rad. All coating samples showed cracks after annealing. Although in principle our measurements are sensitive to such defects, we found no evidence that our results were affected. The issue could be solved, at least for ion-beam sputtered coatings, by decreasing heating and cooling rates down to 7 °C hmore »−1 . While we observed as little optical absorption as in the coatings of current gravitational-wave interferometers (0.5 parts per million), further development will be needed to decrease light scattering and avoid the formation of defects upon annealing.« less