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  1. Abstract

    Sedimentary rocks of the Itararé Group, deposited during the Late Paleozoic Ice Age in the Paraná Basin of South America, were collected throughout the state of São Paulo, Brazil, for an anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and rock‐magnetic study. A recent paleomagnetic study conducted on the same samples had determined that these rocks were largely remagnetized during the Cretaceous; however, rock‐magnetic experiments demonstrate that the AMS is dominantly carried by paramagnetic minerals and therefore is unaffected by the secondary magnetic overprints. AMS data are analyzed in terms of their shape and orientation, and according to the relationship between theq‐value (magnetic lineation/foliation) and the imbrication angle (β) of the minimum susceptibility axes with respect to bedding (qβdiagram). Using multiple lines of evidence, we demonstrate that AMS records primary sedimentary fabrics that reflect the depositional environments and paleocurrent conditions in which these rocks were deposited. The magnetic fabrics consistently record a SE‐NW paleocurrent orientation, with dominant direction of transport to the NW throughout the entire state of São Paulo, in agreement with ice flow and sediment transport directions reported from limited numbers of sites possessing sedimentary structures and ice‐kinematic indicators.

  2. Abstract

    Magnetic fields in the early solar system may have driven the inward accretion of the protoplanetary disk (PPD) and generated instabilities that led to the formation of planets and ring and gap structures. The Allende carbonaceous chondrite meteorite records a strong early solar system magnetic field that has been interpreted to have a PPD, dynamo, or impact‐generated origin. Using high‐resolution magnetic field imaging to isolate the magnetization of individual grain assemblages, we find that only Fe‐sulfides carry a coherent magnetization. Combined with rock magnetic analyses, we conclude that Allende carries a magnetization acquired during parent body chemical alteration at ~3.0–4.2 My after calcium aluminum‐rich inclusions in an >40 µT magnetic field. This early age strongly favors a magnetic field of nebular origin instead of dynamo or solar wind alternatives. When compared to other paleomagnetic data from meteorites, this strong intensity supports a central role for magnetic instabilities in disk accretion and the presence of temporal variations or spatial heterogeneities in the disk, such as ring and gap structures.

  3. Abstract

    Vitrification can dramatically increase the storage of viable biomaterials in the cryogenic state for years. Unfortunately, vitrified systems ≥3 mL like large tissues and organs, cannot currently be rewarmed sufficiently rapidly or uniformly by convective approaches to avoid ice crystallization or cracking failures. A new volumetric rewarming technology entitled “nanowarming” addresses this problem by using radiofrequency excited iron oxide nanoparticles to rewarm vitrified systems rapidly and uniformly. Here, for the first time, successful recovery of a rat kidney from the vitrified state using nanowarming, is shown. First, kidneys are perfused via the renal artery with a cryoprotective cocktail (CPA) and silica‐coated iron oxide nanoparticles (sIONPs). After cooling at −40 °C min−1in a controlled rate freezer, microcomputed tomography (µCT) imaging is used to verify the distribution of the sIONPs and the vitrified state of the kidneys. By applying a radiofrequency field to excite the distributed sIONPs, the vitrified kidneys are nanowarmed at a mean rate of 63.7 °C min−1. Experiments and modeling show the avoidance of both ice crystallization and cracking during these processes. Histology and confocal imaging show that nanowarmed kidneys are dramatically better than convective rewarming controls. This work suggests that kidney nanowarming holds tremendous promise for transplantation.

  4. Abstract

    Devastating seismic events occur mainly in subduction zones, and a significant percentage of them are intraslab earthquakes. The geologic record of these events holds valuable information that needs to be investigated for a comprehensive seismic risk assessment. Here we investigate pseudotachylytes formed in oceanic peridotites and that are interpreted to result from intraslab seismic rupture. Each vein has recorded the seismic slip direction and slip sense of a single coseismic shear‐heating event. The well‐preserved exposures, showing individual veins up to 7 m in length and about 3 cm in width, of Cima di Gratera, in the Schistes Lustrés ophiolitic units of Corsica, offer unparalleled opportunities to investigate intraslab rupture kinematics in mantle rocks. The principal ferromagnetic phase in these rocks is a Ti‐poor magnetite. We use the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) recorded in pseudotachylyte generation veins (bulk susceptibilities range from 600 to 20,000 × 10−6[SI] volume, withP′ ranging from 1.05 to 2.5) to reconstruct the co‐seismic deformation parameters, that is, fault plane attitude, direction and sense of slip. These new results, internally consistent at the vein level, span across oblate and prolate symmetries and reveal that seismic deformation recorded in these veins was kinematically diverse and included mostly normal mechanisms acting alongmore »the same subduction zone. In addition, our investigations show that the magnetic fabric of peridotite‐hosted pseudotachylytes provides key information bearing on the complex dynamics of frictional melts at a unprecedently high spatial resolution.

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  5. Abstract

    Theca. 1.83 Ga Trans‐Hudson orogeny resulted from collision of an upper plate consisting of the Hearne, Rae, and Slave provinces with a lower plate consisting of the Superior province. While the geologic record ofca. 1.83 Ga peak metamorphism within the orogen suggests that these provinces were a single amalgamated craton from this time onward, a lack of paleomagnetic poles from the Superior province following Trans‐Hudson orogenesis has made this coherency difficult to test. We develop a high‐quality paleomagnetic pole for northeast‐trending diabase dikes of the post‐Penokean orogen East‐Central Minnesota Batholith (pole longitude: 265.8°; pole latitude: 20.4°; A95: 4.5°; K: 45.6 N: 23) whose age we constrain to be 1,779.1 ± 2.3 Ma (95% CI) with new U‐Pb dates. Demagnetization and low‐temperature magnetometry experiments establish dike remanence be held by low‐Ti titanomagnetite. Thermochronology data constrain the intrusions to have cooled below magnetite blocking temperatures upon initial emplacement with a mild subsequent thermal history within the stable craton. The similarity of this new Superior province pole with poles from the Slave and Rae provinces establishes the coherency of Laurentia following Trans‐Hudson orogenesis. This consistency supports interpretations that older discrepant 2.22–1.87 Ga pole positions between the provinces are the result of differential motion through mobile‐lid plate tectonics. The newmore »pole supports the northern Europe and North America connection between the Laurentia and Fennoscandia cratons. The pole can be used to jointly reconstruct these cratonsca. 1,780 Ma strengthening the paleogeographic position of these major constituents of the hypothesized late Paleoproterozoic supercontinent Nuna.

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  6. Abstract

    We present new results on the conversion of pure, undoped synthetic ferrihydrite, wet‐annealed at pH 6.56 and 90°C without stabilizing ligands, to nanophase goethite, hematite, and an intermediate magnetic phase, nanophase maghemite. Our analyses included magnetic field and temperature‐dependent properties and characterization by powder X‐ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectra, and high‐resolution transmission electron microscopy. We sampled alteration products after 0.5 hr, and then in a geometric progression to 32 hr, yielding a detailed examination of the earliest alteration phases. There are many similarities to the latest studies of pure ferrihydrite alteration but with a significant difference: We observe early appearance of oriented nanophase goethite along with a soft magnetic contribution, while rhombohedral hematite crystals form later, as reported in previous studies. Our observations attest to the non‐uniqueness of the magnetic enhancement process and to its strong dependence on environmental conditions, with important implications for use of the hematite/goethite ratio as a paleoprecipitation proxy.

  7. Abstract

    In small‐volume igneous intrusions, the duration of magmatism can be difficult to determine because assembly of an intrusion from component magma pulses may occur within geochronologic uncertainties. We demonstrate that the paleomagnetic record of short‐term movement of the geomagnetic pole (secular variation) can place constraints on the duration of intrusion assembly over shorter time periods. An analysis of14C data paired with paleomagnetic data from lava flows illustrates this approach. The flows record paleosecular variation that, when combined with the maximum rate of secular variation from the Holocene, returns a minimum time elapsed between any two flows. Data from an Oligocene laccolith indicate that this system records a minimum of 49° of secular variation and therefore took at least 750 years to be emplaced. High‐precision radiometric geochronology would be unable to resolve this assembly, suggesting that the paleosecular variation record in shallow igneous rocks contains valuable temporal constraints on upper crustal magmatism.

  8. Abstract

    Pressure remanent magnetization (PRM) is acquired when a rock is compressed in the presence of a magnetic field. This process can take place in many different environments from impact and ejection processes in space, to burial and subsequent uplifting of terrestrial rocks. In this study, we systematically study the acquisition of PRM at different pressures and temperatures, using synthetic magnetite in four different grain sizes ranging from nearly single‐domain to purely multidomain. The magnitude of the PRM acquired in a 300 μTfield is, within error, independent of the domain state of the sample. We propose that the acquisition of a PRM is mainly driven by the magnetostriction of the magnetic material. We further show that compared to a thermal remanent magnetization, the acquisition of PRM in large multidomain grains can be quite efficient, and may represent a significant component of magnetization in low‐temperature–high‐pressure environments.

  9. Abstract

    One of the best magneto‐optical claddings for optical isolators in photonic integrated circuits is sputter deposited cerium‐doped terbium iron garnet (Ce:TbIG) which has a large Faraday rotation (≈−3500° cm−1at 1550 nm). Near‐ideal stoichiometry of Ce0.5Tb2.5Fe4.75O12is found to have a 44 nm magnetic dead layer that can impede the interaction of propagating modes with garnet claddings. The effective anisotropy of Ce:TbIG on Si is also important, but calculations using bulk thermal mismatch overestimate the effective anisotropy. Here, X‐ray diffraction measurements yield highly accurate measurements of strain that show anisotropy favors an in‐plane magnetization in agreement with the positive magnetostriction of Ce:TbIG. Upon doping TbIG with Ce, a slight decrease in compensation temperature occurs which points to preferential rare‐earth occupation in dodecahedral sites and an absence of cation redistribution between different lattice sites. The high Faraday rotation, large remanent ratio, large coercivity, and preferential in‐plane magnetization enable Ce:TbIG to be an in‐plane latched garnet, immune to stray fields with magnetization collinear to direction of light propagation.

  10. Abstract

    Fine‐grained, Ti‐poor titanomagnetite in the ~12.7 Ma Tiva Canyon (TC) Tuff systematically increases in grain size from superparamagnetic (SP) at the flow base to single domain (SD) at a few meters height. This allows us to examine the role of grain‐size variation on paleointensity, within the transition from SP to stable SD. We present magnetic properties from two previously unreported sections of the TC Tuff, as well as Thellier‐type paleointensity estimates from the lowermost ~7.0 m of the flow. Magnetic hysteresis, frequency‐dependent susceptibility, and thermomagnetic data show that sample grain‐size distribution is dominated by SP in the lower ~3.6 m, transitioning upwards to mostly stable SD. Paleointensity results are closely tied to stratigraphic height and to magnetic properties linked to domain state. SD samples have consistent absolute paleointensity values of 28.5 ± 1.94 μT (VADM of 51.3 ZAm2) and behaved ideally during paleointensity experiments. The samples including a significant SP fraction have consistently higher paleointensities and less ideal behavior but would likely pass many traditional quality‐control tests. We interpret the SD remanence to be a primary thermal remanent magnetization but discuss the possibility of a partial thermal‐chemical remanent magnetization if microcrystal growth continued at T < Tcand/or the sectionmore »is affected by post‐emplacement vapor‐phase alteration. The link between paleointensity and domain state is stronger than correlations with water content or other evidence of alteration and suggests that the presence of a significant SP population may adversely impact paleointensity results, even in the presence of a stable SD fraction.

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