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Title: Evaluation of ARM tethered-balloon system instrumentation for supercooled liquid water and distributed temperature sensing in mixed-phase Arctic clouds
Abstract. A tethered-balloon system (TBS) has been developed and is beingoperated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) on behalf of the U.S.Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) UserFacility in order to collect in situ atmospheric measurements withinmixed-phase Arctic clouds. Periodic tethered-balloon flights have beenconducted since 2015 within restricted airspace at ARM's Advanced MobileFacility 3 (AMF3) in Oliktok Point, Alaska, as part of the AALCO (AerialAssessment of Liquid in Clouds at Oliktok), ERASMUS (Evaluation of RoutineAtmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems), and POPEYE(Profiling at Oliktok Point to Enhance YOPP Experiments) field campaigns. Thetethered-balloon system uses helium-filled 34 m3 helikites and 79 and104 m3 aerostats to suspend instrumentation that is used to measureaerosol particle size distributions, temperature, horizontal wind, pressure,relative humidity, turbulence, and cloud particle properties and tocalibrate ground-based remote sensing instruments. Supercooled liquid water content (SLWC) sondes using the vibrating-wireprinciple, developed by Anasphere Inc., were operated at Oliktok Point atmultiple altitudes on the TBS within mixed-phase clouds for over 200 h.Sonde-collected SLWC data were compared with liquid water content derivedfrom a microwave radiometer, Ka-band ARM zenith radar, and ceilometer at the AMF3, as well as liquid water content derived from AMF3 radiosonde flights. The in situ data collected by the Anasphere sensors were also compared with data collected simultaneously by an alternative SLWC sensor developed at the University of Reading, UK; both vibrating-wire instruments were typically observed to shed their ice quickly upon exiting the cloud or reaching maximum ice loading. Temperature sensing measurements distributed with fiber optic tethered balloons were also compared with AMF3 radiosonde temperature measurements. Combined, the results indicate that TBS-distributedtemperature sensing and supercooled liquid water measurements are inreasonably good agreement with remote sensing and radiosonde-basedmeasurements of both properties. From these measurements and sensorevaluations, tethered-balloon flights are shown to offer an effective methodof collecting data to inform and constrain numerical models, calibrate andvalidate remote sensing instruments, and characterize the flight environmentof unmanned aircraft, circumventing the difficulties of in-cloud unmanned aircraft flights such as limited flight time and in-flight icing.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1832109 1832170
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
Page Range / eLocation ID:
6845 to 6864
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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