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Title: 98: Validation of a novel transcutaneous fetal oximeter in a hypoxic fetal sheep model
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Award ID(s):
1838939 1934568
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. The sphenoid bone articulates with multiple basicranial, facial, and calvarial bones, and in humans its synchondroses are known to contribute to elongation of the skull base and possibly to cranial base angulation. Its early development (embryological, early fetal) has frequently been studied in a comparative context. However, the perinatal events in morphogenesis of the sphenoid have been explored in very few primates. Using a cross-sectional age sample of non-human primates (n=39; 22 platyrrhines; 17 strepsirrhines), we used microcomputed tomographic (µCT) and histological methods to track age changes in the sphenoid bone. In the midline, the sphenoid expands its dimensions atmore »three growth centers, including the sphenooccipital, intrasphenoidal (ISS) and presphenoseptal (PSept) synchondroses. Bilaterally, the alisphenoid is enlarged via appositional bone growth that radiates outward from cartilaginous parts of the alisphenoid during midfetal stages. The alisphenoid remains connected to the basitrabecular process of the basisphenoid via the alibasisphenoidal synchondrosis (ABS). Reactivity to proliferating cell-nuclear antigen is observed in all synchondroses, indicating active growth perinatally. Between mid-fetal and birth ages in Saguinus geoffroyi , all synchondroses decrease in the breadth of proliferating columns of chondrocytes. In most primates, the ABS is greatly diminished by birth, and is likely the earliest to fuse, although at least some cartilage may remain by at least one-month of age. Unlike humans, no non-human primate in our sample exhibits perinatal fusion of ISS. A dichotomy among primates is the orientation of the ABS, which is more rostrally directed in platyrrhines. Based on fetal Saguinus geoffroyi specimens, the ABS was initially oriented within a horizontal plane, and redirects inferiorly during late fetal and perinatal stages. These changes occur in tandem with forward orientation of the orbits in platyrrhines, combined with downward growth of the midface. Thus, we postulate that active growth centers direct the orientation of the midface and orbit before birth.« less