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Title: Pharyngeal Jaws Converge by Similar Means, Not to Similar Ends, When Minnows (Cypriniformes: Leuciscidae) Adapt to New Dietary Niches
Abstract Convergent evolution is at the forefront of many form-function studies. There are many examples of multiple independent lineages evolving a similar morphology in response to similar functional demands, providing a framework for testing hypotheses of form-function evolution. However, there are numerous clades with underappreciated convergence, in which there is a perceived homogeneity in morphology. In these groups, it can be difficult to investigate causal relationships of form and function (e.g., diet influencing the evolution of jaw morphology) without the ability to disentangle phylogenetic signal from convergence. Leuciscids (Cypriniformes: Leuciscidae; formerly nested within Cyprinidae) are a species-rich clade of fishes that have diversified to occupy nearly every freshwater trophic niche, yet are considered to have relatively low morphological diversity relative to other large freshwater clades. Within the North American leuciscids, many genera contain at least one herbivore, insectivore, and larvaphage. We created 3D models from micro-computed tomography scans of 165 leuciscid species to measure functionally relevant traits within the pharyngeal jaws of these fishes. Using a published phylogeny, we tested these metrics for evolutionary integration, phylogenetic signal, and correlation with diet. Measurements of the pharyngeal jaws, muscle attachment areas, and teeth showed strong positive evolutionary correlation with each other and more » negative evolutionary correlation with measurements of the inter-ceratobranchial ligament (ICB ligament). Using diet data from published literature, we found extensive dietary convergence within Leuciscidae. The most common transitions we found were between herbivorous and invertivorous taxa and between insectivore types (aquatic vs. terrestrial). We document a trade-off in which herbivorous leuciscids have large teeth, short ICB ligaments, and large muscle attachment areas, whereas insectivorous leuciscids showed the opposite pattern. Inverse patterns of morphological integration between the ICB ligament the rest of the pharyngeal jaw correspond this dietary trade-off, which indicates that coordinated evolution of morphological traits contributes to functional diversity in this clade. However, these patterns only emerge in the context of phylogeny, meaning that the pharyngeal jaws of North American leuciscids converge by similar means (structural changes in response to dietary demands), but not necessarily to similar ends (absolute phenotype). « less
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Award ID(s):
1832822 1712015
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Integrative and Comparative Biology
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
432 to 442
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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