skip to main content

Title: Structural Chemistry of Akdalaite, Al10O14(OH)2, the Isostructural Aluminum Analogue of Ferrihydrite
As part of an effort to characterize clusters and intermediate phases likely to be encountered along solution reaction pathways that produce iron and aluminum oxide-hydroxides from Fe and Al precursors, the complete structure of Al10O14(OH)2 (akdalaite) was determined from a combination of single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD) data collected at 100 K to define the Al and O positions, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data collected at room temperature (~300 K) to precisely determine the nature of hydrogen in the structure. Two different synthesis routes produced different crystal morphologies. Using an aluminum oxyhydroxide floc made from mixing AlCl3 and 0.48 M NaOH, the product had uniform needle morphology, while using nanocrystalline boehmite (Vista Chemical Company Catapal D alumina) as the starting material produced hexagonal plates. Akdalaite crystallizes in the space group P63mc with lattice parameters of a = 5.6244(3) Å and c = 8.8417(3) Å (SC-XRD) and a = 5.57610(2) Å and c = 8.77247(6) Å (NPD). The crystal structure features Al13O40 Keggin clusters. The structural chemistry of akdalaite is nonideal but broadly conforms to that of ferrihydrite, the nanomineral with which it is isostructural.
; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Clinopyroxene (Cpx) is commonly believed to be the best structural water (hydrogen) carrier among all major upper mantle nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs). In this study, we have measured the single-crystal elastic properties of a Cpx, a natural omphacite with ~710 ppm water at ambient pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions. Utilizing the single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron microprobe data, the unit cell parameters and density were determined as a = 9.603(9) Å, b = 8.774(3) Å, c = 5.250(2) Å, β = 106.76(5)o, V = 255.1(4) Å3, and ρ = 3.340(6) g/cm3. We performed Brillouin spectroscopy experiments on four single crystals along a total of 52 different crystallographic directions. The best-fit single-crystal elastic moduli (Cijs), bulk and shear moduli were determined as: C11 = 245(1) GPa, C22 = 210(2) GPa, C33 = 249.6(9) GPa, C44 = 75.7(9) GPa, C55 = 71.2(5) GPa, C66 = 76(1) GPa, C12 = 85(2) GPa, C13 = 70(1) GPa, C23 = 66(2) GPa, C15 = 8.0(6) GPa, C25 = 6(1) GPa, C35 = 34.7(6) GPa, and C46 = 8.7(7) GPa, KS0 = 125(3) GPa, and G0 = 75(2) GPa, respectively. Compared with the anticipated elastic properties of an anhydrous omphacite with the same chemicalmore »composition, our results indicate that the incorporation of ~710 ppm structural water has no resolvable effect on the aggregate elastic properties of omphacite, although small differences (up to ~9 GPa) were observed in C13, C25, C44, and C66.« less
  2. While there has been rapid progress in the performance of perovskite solar cells, the details of film formation, effect of processing parameters and perovskite crystal structure are still under discussion. The details of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of the tetragonal phase of CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite existing at room temperature are often overlooked, with unresolved (002) (at 2 θ = 13.99° for CuK α and q = 0.9927 Å −1 ) and (110) (at 2 θ = 14.14° and q = 1.003 Å −1 ) peaks considered to be one peak at 14°, leading to an inaccurate estimation of lattice parameters. In this study, we use an electrospray deposition technique to prepare perovskite films at room temperature, oriented in (002) and (110) directions, with (002) as the preferred orientation. The results of a detailed study on the emergence of the two orientations during perovskite formation are reported. The effect of process parameters, such as substrate temperature during deposition and annealing temperature, on the grain orientation was established using XRD and grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS). The study suggests that an irreversible crystal reorientation from (002) to (110) occurs at high temperature during rapid annealing,more »whereas a reversible crystal thermal expansion is seen during slow annealing. Finally, the results of the grain reorientation are correlated with the film properties, and it is shown that the film with the dominant (110) orientation has improved morphology and optoelectronic properties. The detailed structural investigation and characterization presented in this study are important for the precise determination of crystal orientation and achievement of desirable photovoltaic properties of the absorber material by carefully observing the adjacent crystal plane peaks in the XRD pattern of the perovskite thin films.« less
  3. The high-pressure structure and stability of the calcic amphibole tremolite (Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2) was investigated to ~40 GPa at 300 K by single-crystal X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. C2/m symmetry tremolite displays a broader metastability range than previously studied clinoamphiboles, exhibiting no first-order phase transition up to 40 GPa. Axial parameter ratios a/b and a/c, in conjunction with finite strain versus normalized pressure trends, indicate that changes in compressional behavior occur at pressures of ~5 and ~20 GPa. An analysis of the finite strain trends, using third-order Birch-Murnaghan equations of state, resulted in bulk moduli (𝐾) of 72(7), 77(2), and 61(1) GPa for the compressional regimes from 0-5 GPa (regime I), 5-20 GPa (II), and above 20 GPa (III), respectively, and accompanying pressure-derivatives of the bulk moduli (𝐾′) of 8.6(42), 6.0(3), and 10.0(2). The results are consistent with first-principle theoretical calculations of tremolite elasticity. The axial compressibility ratios of tremolite, determined as 𝛽a : 𝛽b : 𝛽c = 2.22:1.0:0.78 (regime I), 2.12:1.0:0.96 (II), and 1.03:1.0:0.75 (III), demonstrate a substantial reduction of the compressional anisotropy of tremolite at high pressures, which is a notable contrast with the increasingly anisotropic compressibility observed in the high-pressure polymorphs of the clinoamphibole grunerite. The shift in compression-regimemore »at 5 GPa (I-II) transition is ascribed to stiffening along the crystallographic a-axis corresponding to closure of the vacant A-site in the structure, and a shift in the topology of the a-oriented surfaces of the structural I-beam from concave to convex. The II-III regime shift at 20 GPa corresponds to an increasing rate of compaction of the Ca-polyhedra and increased distortion of the Mg-octahedral sites, processes which dictate compaction in both high-pressure compression-regimes. Bond-valence analyses of the tremolite structure under pressure show dramatic overbonding of the Ca-cations (75% at 30 GPa), with significant Mg-cation overbonding as well (40%). These imply that tremolite’s notable metastability range hinges on the calcium cation’s bonding environment. The 8-fold coordinated Ca-polyhedron accommodates significant compaction under pressure, while the geometry of the Ca-O polyhedron becomes increasingly regular and inhibits the reorientation of the tetrahedral chains that generate phase transitions observed in other clinoamphiboles. Peak/background ratio of diffraction data collected above 40 GPa and our equation of state determination of bulk moduli and compressibilities of tremolite in regime III, in concert with the results of our previous Raman study, suggest that C2/m tremolite may be approaching the limit of its metastability above 40 GPa. Our results have relevance for both the metastable compaction of tremolite during impact events, and for possible metastable persistence of tremolite within cold subduction zones within the Earth.« less
  4. High-pressure diamond-anvil cell synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments were conducted on single-crystal samples of natural orthoamphibole; gedrite; with composition; (K0.002Na0.394)(Mg2)(Mg1.637Fe2.245Mn0.004Ca0.022Cr0.003Na0.037Al1.052)(Si6.517Al1.483)O22(OH)2. The samples were compressed at 298 K up to a maximum pressure of 27(1) GPa. In this pressure regime, we observed a displacive phase transition between 15.1(7) and 21(1) GPa from the orthorhombic Pnma phase to a new structure with space group P21/m; which is different from the familiar P21/m structure of cummingtonite and retains the (+, +, −, −) I-beam stacking sequence of the orthorhombic structure. The unit cell parameters for the new phase at 21(1) GPa are a = 17.514(3), b = 17.077(1), c = 4.9907(2) Å and β = 92.882(6)°. The high-pressure P21/m phase is the first amphibole structure to show the existence of four crystallographically distinct silicate double chains. The orthorhombic to monoclinic phase transition is characterized by an increase in the degree of kinking of the double silicate chains and is analogous to displacive phase changes recently reported in orthopyroxenes, highlighting the parallel structural relations and phase transformation behavior of orthorhombic single- and double-chain silicates.

    We present a detailed near-infrared chemical abundance analysis of 10 red giant members of the Galactic open cluster NGC 752. High-resolution (R ≃ 45000) near-infrared spectral data were gathered with the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph, providing simultaneous coverage of the complete H and K bands. We derived the abundances of H-burning (C, N, O), α (Mg, Si, S, Ca), light odd-Z (Na, Al, P, K), Fe-group (Sc, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni), and neutron-capture (Ce, Nd, Yb) elements. We report the abundances of S, P, K, Ce, and Yb in NGC 752 for the first time. Our analysis yields solar-metallicity and solar abundance ratios for almost all of the elements heavier than the CNO group in NGC 752. O and N abundances were measured from a number of OH and CN features in the H band, and C abundances were determined mainly from CO molecular lines in the K band. High-excitation $\rm{C\,\small {I}}$ lines present in both near-infrared and optical spectra were also included in the C abundance determinations. Carbon isotopic ratios were derived from the R-branch band heads of first overtone (2−0) and (3−1) 12CO and (2−0) 13CO lines near 23 440 Å and (3−1) 13CO lines at about 23 730 Å. The CNOmore »abundances and 12C/13C ratios are all consistent with our giants having completed ‘first dredge-up’ envelope mixing of CN-cyle products. We independently assessed NGC 752 stellar membership from Gaia astrometry, leading to a new colour–magnitude diagram for this cluster. Applications of Victoria isochrones and MESA models to these data yield an updated NGC 752 cluster age (1.52 Gyr) and evolutionary stage indications for the programme stars. The photometric evidence and spectroscopic light element abundances all suggest that the most, perhaps all of the programme stars are members of the helium-burning red clump in this cluster.

    « less