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Title: Diurnal Effects of Regional Soil Moisture Anomalies on the Great Plains Low-Level Jet
The Great Plains (GP) low-level jet (GPLLJ) contributes to GP warm season water resources (precipitation), wind resources, and severe weather outbreaks. Past research has shown that synoptic and local mesoscale physical mechanisms (Holton and Blackadar mechanisms) are required to explain GPLLJ variability. Although soil moisture–PBL interactions are central to local mechanistic theories, the diurnal effect of regional soil moisture anomalies on GPLLJ speed, northward penetration, and propensity for severe weather is not well known. In this study, two 31-member WRF-ARW stochastic kinetic energy backscatter scheme ensembles simulate a typical warm season GPLLJ case under CONUS-wide wet and dry soil moisture scenarios. In the GP (24°–48°N, 103°–90°W), ensemble mean differences in sensible heating and PBL height of 25–150 W m −2 and 100–700 m, respectively, at 2100 UTC (afternoon) culminate in GPLLJ 850-hPa wind speed differences of 1–4 m s −1 12 hours later (0900 UTC; early morning). Greater heat accumulation in the daytime PBL over dry soil impacts the east–west geopotential height gradient in the GP (synoptic conditions and Holton mechanism) resulting in a deeper thermal low in the northern GP, causing increases in the geostrophic wind. Enhanced daytime turbulent mixing over dry soil impacts the PBL structure (Blackadar mechanism), more » leading to increased ageostrophic wind. Overnight geostrophic and ageostrophic winds constructively interact, leading to a faster nocturnal GPLLJ over dry soil. Ensemble differences in CIN (~50–150 J kg −1 ) and CAPE (~500–1000 J kg −1 ) have implications for severe weather predictability. « less
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Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Monthly Weather Review
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
4611 to 4631
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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