skip to main content

Title: Universal logical gates with constant overhead: instantaneous Dehn twists for hyperbolic quantum codes
A basic question in the theory of fault-tolerant quantum computation is to understand the fundamental resource costs for performing a universal logical set of gates on encoded qubits to arbitrary accuracy. Here we consider qubits encoded with constant space overhead (i.e. finite encoding rate) in the limit of arbitrarily large code distance d through the use of topological codes associated to triangulations of hyperbolic surfaces. We introduce explicit protocols to demonstrate how Dehn twists of the hyperbolic surface can be implemented on the code through constant depth unitary circuits, without increasing the space overhead. The circuit for a given Dehn twist consists of a permutation of physical qubits, followed by a constant depth local unitary circuit, where locality here is defined with respect to a hyperbolic metric that defines the code. Applying our results to the hyperbolic Fibonacci Turaev-Viro code implies the possibility of applying universal logical gate sets on encoded qubits through constant depth unitary circuits and with constant space overhead. Our circuits are inherently protected from errors as they map local operators to local operators while changing the size of their support by at most a constant factor; in the presence of noisy syndrome measurements, our results suggest more » the possibility of universal fault tolerant quantum computation with constant space overhead and time overhead of O ( d / log ⁡ d ) . For quantum circuits that allow parallel gate operations, this yields the optimal scaling of space-time overhead known to date. « less
Authors:
; ;
Award ID(s):
1753240
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10146601
Journal Name:
Quantum
Volume:
3
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
180
ISSN:
2521-327X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Reliable qubits are difficult to engineer, but standard fault-tolerance schemes use seven or more physical qubits to encode each logical qubit, with still more qubits required for error correction. The large overhead makes it hard to experiment with fault-tolerance schemes with multiple encoded qubits. Here, we study the 15-qubit Hamming code, which protects seven encoded qubits to distance three. We give fault-tolerant procedures for applying arbitrary Clifford operations on these encoded qubits, using only two extra qubits, 17 in total. In particular, individual encoded qubits within the code block can be targeted. Fault-tolerant universal computation is possible with four extra qubits, 19 in total. The procedures could enable testing more sophisticated protected circuits in small-scale quantum devices. Our main technique is to use gadgets to protect gates against correlated faults. We also take advantage of special code symmetries, and use pieceable fault tolerance.

  2. Quantum computers have recently made great strides and are on a long-term path towards useful fault-tolerant computation. A dominant overhead in fault-tolerant quantum computation is the production of high-fidelity encoded qubits, called magic states, which enable reliable error-corrected computation. We present the first detailed designs of hardware functional units that implement space-time optimized magic-state factories for surface code error-corrected machines. Interactions among distant qubits require surface code braids (physical pathways on chip) which must be routed. Magic-state factories are circuits comprised of a complex set of braids that is more difficult to route than quantum circuits considered in previous work [1]. This paper explores the impact of scheduling techniques, such as gate reordering and qubit renaming, and we propose two novel mapping techniques: braid repulsion and dipole moment braid rotation. We combine these techniques with graph partitioning and community detection algorithms, and further introduce a stitching algorithm for mapping subgraphs onto a physical machine. Our results show a factor of 5.64 reduction in space-time volume compared to the best-known previous designs for magic-state factories.
  3. Adiabatic computing with two degrees of freedom of 2-local Hamiltonians has been theoretically shown to be equivalent to the gate model of universal quantum computing. But today’s quantum annealers, namely D-Wave’s 2000Q platform, only provide a 2-local Ising Hamiltonian abstraction with a single degree of freedom. This raises the question what subset of gate programs can be expressed as quadratic unconstrained binary problems (QUBOs) on the D-Wave. The problem is of interest because gate-based quantum platforms are currently limited to 20 qubits while D-Wave provides 2,000 qubits. However, when transforming entire gate circuits into QUBOs, additional qubits will be required. The objective of this work is to determine a subset of quantum gates suitable for transformation into single-degree 2-local Ising Hamiltonians under a common qubit base representation such that they comprise a compound circuit suitable for pure quantum computation, i.e., without having to switch between classical and quantum computing for different bases. To this end, this work contributes, for the first time, a fully automated method to translate quantum gate circuits comprised of a subset of common gates expressed as an IBM Qiskit program to single-degree 2-local Ising Hamiltonians, which are subsequently embedded in the D-Wave 2000Q chimera graph. Thesemore »gate elements are placed in the chimera graph and augmented by constraints that enforce inter-gate logical relationships, resulting in an annealer embedding that completely characterizes the overall gate circuit. Annealer embeddings for several example quantum gate circuits are then evaluated on D-Wave 2000Q hardware.« less
  4. Abstract

    We study the effectiveness of quantum error correction against coherent noise. Coherent errors (for example, unitary noise) can interfere constructively, so that in some cases the average infidelity of a quantum circuit subjected to coherent errors may increase quadratically with the circuit size; in contrast, when errors are incoherent (for example, depolarizing noise), the average infidelity increases at worst linearly with circuit size. We consider the performance of quantum stabilizer codes against a noise model in which a unitary rotation is applied to each qubit, where the axes and angles of rotation are nearly the same for all qubits. In particular, we show that for the toric code subject to such independent coherent noise, and for minimal-weight decoding, the logical channel after error correction becomes increasingly incoherent as the length of the code increases, provided the noise strength decays inversely with the code distance. A similar conclusion holds for weakly correlated coherent noise. Our methods can also be used for analyzing the performance of other codes and fault-tolerant protocols against coherent noise. However, our result does not show that the coherence of the logical channel is suppressed in the more physically relevant case where the noise strength is heldmore »constant as the code block grows, and we recount the difficulties that prevented us from extending the result to that case. Nevertheless our work supports the idea that fault-tolerant quantum computing schemes will work effectively against coherent noise, providing encouraging news for quantum hardware builders who worry about the damaging effects of control errors and coherent interactions with the environment.

    « less
  5. Abstract

    We prove that$${{\,\textrm{poly}\,}}(t) \cdot n^{1/D}$$poly(t)·n1/D-depth local random quantum circuits with two qudit nearest-neighbor gates on aD-dimensional lattice withnqudits are approximatet-designs in various measures. These include the “monomial” measure, meaning that the monomials of a random circuit from this family have expectation close to the value that would result from the Haar measure. Previously, the best bound was$${{\,\textrm{poly}\,}}(t)\cdot n$$poly(t)·ndue to Brandão–Harrow–Horodecki (Commun Math Phys 346(2):397–434, 2016) for$$D=1$$D=1. We also improve the “scrambling” and “decoupling” bounds for spatially local random circuits due to Brown and Fawzi (Scrambling speed of random quantum circuits, 2012). One consequence of our result is that assuming the polynomial hierarchy ($${{\,\mathrm{\textsf{PH}}\,}}$$PH) is infinite and that certain counting problems are$$\#{\textsf{P}}$$#P-hard “on average”, sampling within total variation distance from these circuits is hard for classical computers. Previously, exact sampling from the outputs of even constant-depth quantum circuits was known to be hard for classical computers under these assumptions. However the standard strategy for extending this hardness result to approximate sampling requires the quantum circuits to have a property called “anti-concentration”, meaning roughly that the output has near-maximal entropy. Unitary 2-designs have the desired anti-concentration property. Our result improves the required depth for this level of anti-concentration from linear depthmore »to a sub-linear value, depending on the geometry of the interactions. This is relevant to a recent experiment by the Google Quantum AI group to perform such a sampling task with 53 qubits on a two-dimensional lattice (Arute in Nature 574(7779):505–510, 2019; Boixo et al. in Nate Phys 14(6):595–600, 2018) (and related experiments by USTC), and confirms their conjecture that$$O(\sqrt{n})$$O(n)depth suffices for anti-concentration. The proof is based on a previous construction oft-designs by Brandão et al. (2016), an analysis of how approximate designs behave under composition, and an extension of the quasi-orthogonality of permutation operators developed by Brandão et al. (2016). Different versions of the approximate design condition correspond to different norms, and part of our contribution is to introduce the norm corresponding to anti-concentration and to establish equivalence between these various norms for low-depth circuits. For random circuits with long-range gates, we use different methods to show that anti-concentration happens at circuit size$$O(n\ln ^2 n)$$O(nln2n)corresponding to depth$$O(\ln ^3 n)$$O(ln3n). We also show a lower bound of$$\Omega (n \ln n)$$Ω(nlnn)for the size of such circuit in this case. We also prove that anti-concentration is possible in depth$$O(\ln n \ln \ln n)$$O(lnnlnlnn)(size$$O(n \ln n \ln \ln n)$$O(nlnnlnlnn)) using a different model.

    « less