- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Chemical Science
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 7734 to 7745
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Symmetry and 1 H NMR chemical shifts of short hydrogen bonds: impact of electronic and nuclear quantum effectsShort hydrogen bonds (SHBs), which have donor and acceptor separations below 2.7 Å, occur extensively in small molecules and proteins. Due to their compact structures, SHBs exhibit prominent covalent characters with elongated Donor–H bonds and highly downfield (>14 ppm) 1 H NMR chemical shifts. In this work, we carry out first principles simulations on a set of model molecules to assess how quantum effects determine the symmetry and chemical shift of their SHBs. From simulations that incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the electrons and nuclei, we reveal a universal relation between the chemical shift and the position of the proton in a SHB, and unravel the origin of the observed downfield spectral signatures. We further develop a metric that allows one to accurately and efficiently determine the proton position directly from its 1 H chemical shift, which will facilitate the experimental examination of SHBs in both small molecules and biological macromolecules.
Short hydrogen bonds (SHBs), whose donor and acceptor heteroatoms lie within 2.7 Å, exhibit prominent quantum mechanical characters and are connected to a wide range of essential biomolecular processes. However, exact determination of the geometry and functional roles of SHBs requires a protein to be at atomic resolution. In this work, we analyze 1260 high-resolution peptide and protein structures from the Protein Data Bank and develop a boosting based machine learning model to predict the formation of SHBs between amino acids. This model, which we name as machine learning assisted prediction of short hydrogen bonds (MAPSHB), takes into account 21 structural, chemical and sequence features and their interaction effects and effectively categorizes each hydrogen bond in a protein to a short or normal hydrogen bond. The MAPSHB model reveals that the type of the donor amino acid plays a major role in determining the class of a hydrogen bond and that the side chain Tyr-Asp pair demonstrates a significant probability of forming a SHB. Combining electronic structure calculations and energy decomposition analysis, we elucidate how the interplay of competing intermolecular interactions stabilizes the Tyr-Asp SHBs more than other commonly observed combinations of amino acid side chains. The MAPSHB model,more »
Structural and dynamic properties of solvated hydroxide and hydronium ions in water from ab initio modelingPredicting the asymmetric structure and dynamics of solvated hydroxide and hydronium in water from ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) has been a challenging task. The difficulty mainly comes from a lack of accurate and efficient exchange–correlation functional in elucidating the amphiphilic nature and the ubiquitous proton transfer behaviors of the two ions. By adopting the strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) meta-generalized gradient approximation functional in AIMD simulations, we systematically examine the amphiphilic properties, the solvation structures, the electronic structures, and the dynamic properties of the two water ions. In particular, we compare these results to those predicted by the PBE0-TS functional, which is an accurate yet computationally more expensive exchange–correlation functional. We demonstrate that the general-purpose SCAN functional provides a reliable choice for describing the two water ions. Specifically, in the SCAN picture of water ions, the appearance of the fourth and fifth hydrogen bonds near hydroxide stabilizes the pot-like shape solvation structure and suppresses the structural diffusion, while the hydronium stably donates three hydrogen bonds to its neighbors. We apply a detailed analysis of the proton transfer mechanism of the two ions and find the two ions exhibit substantially different proton transfer patterns. Our AIMD simulations indicate thatmore »
Hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) can be interpreted as a classical electrostatic interaction or as a covalent chemical bond if the interaction is strong enough. As a result, short strong H-bonds exist at an intersection between qualitatively different bonding descriptions, with few experimental methods to understand this dichotomy. The [F-H-F]−ion represents a bare short H-bond, whose distinctive vibrational potential in water is revealed with femtosecond two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy. It shows the superharmonic behavior of the proton motion, which is strongly coupled to the donor-acceptor stretching and disappears on H-bond bending. In combination with high-level quantum-chemical calculations, we demonstrate a distinct crossover in spectroscopic properties from conventional to short strong H-bonds, which identify where hydrogen bonding ends and chemical bonding begins.
Fluorescent proteins (FPs) have become fundamental tools for live cell imaging. Most FPs currently used are members of the green fluorescent protein super-family, but new fluorophores such as bilin-FPs are being developed and optimized. In particular, the UnaG FP incorporates bilirubin (BR) as a chromophore, enhancing its fluorescence quantum yield by three orders of magnitude relative to that in solution. To investigate the mechanism of this dramatic enhancement and provide a basis for further engineering of UnaG and other tetrapyrrole-based fluorophores, we performed picosecond fluorescence and femtosecond transient absorption measurements of BR bound to UnaG and its N57A site-directed mutant. The dynamics of wt-UnaG, which has a fluorescence QY of 0.51, are largely homogeneous, showing an excited state relaxation of ∼200 ps, and a 2.2 ns excited-state lifetime decay with a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of 1.1 for D 2 O vs. H 2 O buffer. In contrast, for UnaG N57A (fluorescence QY 0.01) the results show a large spectral inhomogeneity with excited state decay timescales of 47 and 200 ps and a KIE of 1.4. The non-radiative deactivation of the excited state is limited by proton transfer. The loss of direct hydrogen bonds to the endo -vinyl dipyrrinone moietymore »