The budding field of materials informatics has coincided with a shift towards artificial intelligence to discover new solid-state compounds. The steady expansion of repositories for crystallographic and computational data has set the stage for developing data-driven models capable of predicting a bevy of physical properties. Machine learning methods, in particular, have already shown the ability to identify materials with near ideal properties for energy-related applications by screening crystal structure databases. However, examples of the data-guided discovery of entirely new, never-before-reported compounds remain limited. The critical step for determining if an unknown compound is synthetically accessible is obtaining the formation energy and constructing the associated convex hull. Fortunately, this information has become widely available through density functional theory (DFT) data repositories to the point that they can be used to develop machine learning models. In this Review, we discuss the specific design choices for developing a machine learning model capable of predicting formation energy, including the thermodynamic quantities governing material stability. We investigate several models presented in the literature that cover various possible architectures and feature sets and find that they have succeeded in uncovering new DFT-stable compounds and directing materials synthesis. To expand access to machine learning models formore »
The successful discovery and isolation of graphene in 2004, and the subsequent synthesis of layered semiconductors and heterostructures beyond graphene have led to the exploding field of two-dimensional (2D) materials that explore their growth, new atomic-scale physics, and potential device applications. This review aims to provide an overview of theoretical, computational, and machine learning methods and tools at multiple length and time scales, and discuss how they can be utilized to assist/guide the design and synthesis of 2D materials beyond graphene. We focus on three methods at different length and time scales as follows: (i) nanoscale atomistic simulations including density functional theory (DFT) calculations and molecular dynamics simulations employing empirical and reactive interatomic potentials; (ii) mesoscale methods such as phase-field method; and (iii) macroscale continuum approaches by coupling thermal and chemical transport equations. We discuss how machine learning can be combined with computation and experiments to understand the correlations between structures and properties of 2D materials, and to guide the discovery of new 2D materials. We will also provide an outlook for the applications of computational approaches to 2D materials synthesis and growth in general.
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- npj Computational Materials
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- National Science Foundation
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