skip to main content

Title: Selective host–guest chemistry, self-assembly and conformational preferences of m -xylene macrocycles probed by ion-mobility spectrometry mass spectrometry
We demonstrated ion-mobility spectrometry mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) as a powerful tool for interrogating and preserving selective chemistry including non-covalent and host–guest complexes of m -xylene macrocycles formed in solution. The technique readily revealed the unique favorability of a thiourea-containing macrocycle MXT to Zn 2+ to form a dimer complex with the cation in an off-axis sandwich structure having the Zn–S bonds in a tetrahedral coordination environment. Replacing thiourea with urea generates MXU which formed high-order oligomerization with weak binding interactions to neutral DMSO guests detected at every oligomer size. The self-assembly pathway observed for this macrocycle is consistent with the crystalline assembly. Further transformation of urea into squaramide produces MXS, a rare receptor for probing sulfate in solution. Tight complexes were observed for both monomeric and dimeric of MXS in which HSO 4 − bound stronger than SO 4 2− to the host. The position of HSO 4 − at the binding cavity is a 180° inversion of the reported crystallographic SO 4 2− . The MXS dimer formed a prism-like shape with HSO 4 − exhibiting strong contacts with the 8 amine protons of two MXS macrocycles. By eliminating intermolecular interferences, we detected the low energy structures of MXS more » with collisional cross section (CCS) matching cis – trans and cis – cis squaramides-amines, both were not observed in crystallization trials. The experiments collectively unravel multiple facets of macrocycle chemistry including conformational flexibility, self-assembly and ligand binding; all in one analysis. Our findings illustrate an inexpensive and widely applicable approach to investigate weak but important interactions that define the shape and binding of macrocycles. « less
Authors:
; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1904386
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10157072
Journal Name:
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics
Volume:
22
Issue:
17
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
9290 to 9300
ISSN:
1463-9076
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract Macrocycles are unique molecular structures extensively used in the design of catalysts, therapeutics and supramolecular assemblies. Among all reactions reported to date, systems that can produce macrocycles in high yield under high reaction concentrations are rare. Here we report the use of dynamic hindered urea bond (HUB) for the construction of urea macrocycles with very high efficiency. Mixing of equal molar diisocyanate and hindered diamine leads to formation of macrocycles with discrete structures in nearly quantitative yields under high concentration of reactants. The bulky N - tert -butyl plays key roles to facilitate the formation of macrocycles, providing notmore »only the kinetic control due to the formation of the cyclization-promoting cis C = O/ tert -butyl conformation, but also possibly the thermodynamic stabilization of macrocycles with weak association interactions. The bulky N - tert -butyl can be readily removed by acid to eliminate the dynamicity of HUB and stabilize the macrocycle structures.« less
  2. The self-assembly of foldamers into macrocycles is a simple approach to non-biological higher-order structure. Previous work on the co-assembly of ortho -phenylene foldamers with rod-shaped linkers has shown that folding and self-assembly affect each other; that is, the combination leads to new emergent behavior, such as access to otherwise unfavorable folding states. To this point this relationship has been passive. Here, we demonstrate control of self-assembly by manipulating the foldamers' conformational energy surfaces. A series of o -phenylene decamers and octamers have been assembled into macrocycles using imine condensation. Product distributions were analyzed by gel-permeation chromatography and molecular geometries extractedmore »from a combination of NMR spectroscopy and computational chemistry. The assembly of o -phenylene decamers functionalized with alkoxy groups or hydrogens gives both [2 + 2] and [3 + 3] macrocycles. The mixture results from a subtle balance of entropic and enthalpic effects in these systems: the smaller [2 + 2] macrocycles are entropically favored but require the oligomer to misfold, whereas a perfectly folded decamer fits well within the larger [3 + 3] macrocycle that is entropically disfavored. Changing the substituents to fluoro groups, however, shifts assembly quantitatively to the [3 + 3] macrocycle products, even though the structural changes are well-removed from the functional groups directly participating in bond formation. The electron-withdrawing groups favor folding in these systems by strengthening arene–arene stacking interactions, increasing the enthalpic penalty to misfolding. The architectural changes are substantial even though the chemical perturbation is small: analogous o -phenylene octamers do not fit within macrocycles when perfectly folded, and quantitatively misfold to give small macrocycles regardless of substitution. Taken together, these results represent both a high level of structural control in structurally complex foldamer systems and the demonstration of large-amplitude structural changes as a consequence of a small structural effects.« less
  3. Mutations in the GTPase enzyme K-Ras, specifically at codon G12, remain the most common genetic alterations in human cancers. The mechanisms governing activation of downstream signaling pathways and how they relate back to the identity of the mutation have yet to be completely defined. Here we use native mass spectrometry (MS) combined with ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) to investigate the impact of three G12X mutations (G12C, G12V, G12S) on the homodimerization of K-Ras as well as heterodimerization with a downstream effector protein, Raf. Electrospray ionization (ESI) was used to transfer complexes of WT or G12X K-Ras bound to guanosine 5′-diphosphate (GDP)more »or GppNHp (non-hydrolyzable analogue of GTP) into the gas phase. Relative abundances of homo- or hetero-dimer complexes were estimated from ESI-MS spectra. K-Ras + Raf heterocomplexes were activated with UVPD to probe structural changes responsible for observed differences in the amount of heterocomplex formed for each variant. Holo (ligand-bound) fragment ions resulting from photodissociation suggest the G12X mutants bind Raf along the expected effector binding region (β-interface) but may interact with Raf via an alternative α-interface as well. Variations in backbone cleavage efficiencies during UV photoactivation of each variant were used to relate mutation identity to structural changes that might impact downstream signaling. Specifically, oncogenic upregulation for hydrogen-bonding amino acid substitutions (G12C, G12S) is achieved by stabilizing β-interface interactions with Raf, while a bulkier, hydrophobic G12V substitution leads to destabilization of this interface and instead increases the proximity of residues along the α-helical bundles. This study deciphers new pieces of the complex puzzle of how different K-Ras mutations exert influence in downstream signaling.« less
  4. Goldup, S (Ed.)
    Thermodynamically favored simultaneous coordination of Pt(II) corners with aza- and carboxylate ligands yields tricomponent coordination complexes with sophisticated structures and functions, which require careful structural characterization to paint accurate depiction of their structure–function relationships. Previous reports had claimed that heteroleptic coordination of cis-(Et3P)2PtII with tetrapyridyl porphyrins (M'TPP, M' = Zn or H2) and dicarboxylate ligands (XDC) yielded 3D tetragonal prisms containing two horizontal M'TPP faces and four vertical XDC pillars connected by eight Pt(II) corners, even though such structures were not supported by their 1H NMR data. Through extensive X-ray crystallographic and NMR studies, herein, we demonstrate that self-assembly ofmore »cis-(Et3P)2PtII, M'TPP, and four different XDC linkers having varied lengths and rigidity actually yields bow-tie (⋈)-shaped 2D [{cis-(Et3P)2Pt}4(M'TPP)(XDC)2]4+ complexes featuring a M'TPP core and two parallel XDC linkers connected by four heteroleptic PtII corners instead of 3D prisms. This happened because (i) irrespective of their length (~7–11 Å) and rigidity, the XDC linkers intramolecularly bridged two adjacent pyridyl-N atoms of a M'TPP core via PtII corners instead of connecting two cofacial M'TPP ligands and (ii) the bow-tie complexes are entropically more favored over prisms. The electron-rich ZnTPP core of a bow-tie complex selectively formed a charge-transfer complex with highly π-acidic 1,4,5,8,9,12-hexaazatriphenylene-2,3,6,7,10,11-heaxacarbonitrile but not with a π-donor like pyrene. Thus, this work not only produced novel M'TPP-based bow-tie complexes and demonstrated their selective π-acid recognition capability, but also underscored the importance of proper structural characterization of supramolecular assemblies to ensure accurate depiction of their structure–property relationships.« less
  5. In this work, a proteolytic digest of cytochrome c (microperoxidase 11, MP-11) was used as a model to study the structural aspects of heme protein interactions and porphyrin networks. The MP-11 structural heterogeneity was studied as a function of the starting pH ( e.g. , pH 3.1–6.1) and concentration ( e.g. , 1–50 μM) conditions and adduct coordination. Trapped ion mobility spectrometry coupled to mass spectrometry (TIMS-MS) showed the MP-11 structural dependence of the charge state distribution and molecular ion forms with the starting pH conditions. The singly charged ( e.g. , [M] + , [M − 2H + NHmore »4 ] + , [M − H + Na] + and [M − H + K] + ) and doubly charged ( e.g. , [M + H] 2+ , [M − H + NH 4 ] 2+ , [M + Na] 2+ and [M + K] 2+ ) molecular ion forms were observed for all solvent conditions, although the structural heterogeneity ( e.g. , number of mobility bands) significantly varied with the pH value and ion form. The MP-11 dimer formation as a model for heme-protein protein interactions showed that dimer formation is favored toward more neutral pH and favored when assisted by salt bridges ( e.g. , NH 4 + , Na + and K + vs. H + ). Inspection of the dimer mobility profiles (2+ and 3+ charge states) showed a high degree of structural heterogeneity as a function of the solution pH and ion form; the observation of common mobility bands suggest that the different salt bridges can stabilize similar structural motifs. In addition, the salt bridge influence on the MP-11 dimer formations was measured using collision induced dissociation and showed a strong dependence with the type of salt bridge ( i.e. , a CE 50 of 10.0, 11.5, 11.8 and 13.0 eV was observed for [2M + H] 3+ , [2M − H + NH 4 ] 3+ , [2M + Na] 3+ and [2M + K] 3+ , respectively). Measurements of the dimer equilibrium constant showed that the salt bridge interactions increase the binding strength of the dimeric species.« less