- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- LICS'20: 35th Annual ACM/IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 74 to 87
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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We consider the problem of designing sublinear time algorithms for estimating the cost of minimum] metric traveling salesman (TSP) tour. Specifically, given access to a n × n distance matrix D that specifies pairwise distances between n points, the goal is to estimate the TSP cost by performing only sublinear (in the size of D) queries. For the closely related problem of estimating the weight of a metric minimum spanning tree (MST), it is known that for any epsilon > 0, there exists an O^~(n/epsilon^O(1))-time algorithm that returns a (1+epsilon)-approximate estimate of the MST cost. This result immediately implies an O^~(n/epsilon^O(1)) time algorithm to estimate the TSP cost to within a (2 + epsilon) factor for any epsilon > 0. However, no o(n^2)-time algorithms are known to approximate metric TSP to a factor that is strictly better than 2. On the other hand, there were also no known barriers that rule out existence of (1 + epsilon)-approximate estimation algorithms for metric TSP with O^~ (n) time for any fixed epsilon > 0. In this paper, we make progress on both algorithms and lower bounds for estimating metric TSP cost. On the algorithmic side, we first consider the graphic TSP problemmore »
Streaming codes take a string of source symbols as input and output a string of coded symbols in real time, which effectively eliminate the queueing delay and are regarded as a promising scheme for low latency communications. Aiming at quantifying the fundamental latency performance of random linear streaming codes (RLSCs) over i.i.d. symbol erasure channels, this work derives the exact error probability under, simultaneously, the finite memory length and finite decoding deadline constraints. The result is then used to examine the tradeoff among memory length (complexity), decoding deadline (delay), and error probability (reliability) of RLSCs for the first time in the literature. Two critical observations are made: (i) Too much memory can adversely impact the performance under a finite decoding deadline constraint, a surprising finding not captured by the traditional wisdom that large memory length monotonically improves the performance in the asymptotic regime; (ii) The end-to-end delay of the RLSC is roughly 50% of that of the MDS block code when under identical code rate and error probability requirements. This implies that switching from block codes to RLSCs not only eliminates the queueing delay (thus 50%) but also has little negative impact on the error probability.
Mikołaj Bojańczyk and Emanuela Merelli and David P. Woodruff (Ed.)The classical coding theorem in Kolmogorov complexity states that if an n-bit string x is sampled with probability δ by an algorithm with prefix-free domain then K(x) ≤ log(1/δ) + O(1). In a recent work, Lu and Oliveira  established an unconditional time-bounded version of this result, by showing that if x can be efficiently sampled with probability δ then rKt(x) = O(log(1/δ)) + O(log n), where rKt denotes the randomized analogue of Levin’s Kt complexity. Unfortunately, this result is often insufficient when transferring applications of the classical coding theorem to the time-bounded setting, as it achieves a O(log(1/δ)) bound instead of the information-theoretic optimal log(1/δ). Motivated by this discrepancy, we investigate optimal coding theorems in the time-bounded setting. Our main contributions can be summarised as follows. • Efficient coding theorem for rKt with a factor of 2. Addressing a question from , we show that if x can be efficiently sampled with probability at least δ then rKt(x) ≤ (2 + o(1)) · log(1/δ) +O(log n). As in previous work, our coding theorem is efficient in the sense that it provides a polynomial-time probabilistic algorithm that, when given x, the code of the sampler, and δ, it outputs, withmore »
For a graph G on n vertices, naively sampling the position of a random walk of at time t requires work Ω(t). We desire local access algorithms supporting positionG(t) queries, which return the position of a random walk from some fixed start vertex s at time t, where the joint distribution of returned positions is 1/ poly(n) close to those of a uniformly random walk in ℓ1 distance. We first give an algorithm for local access to random walks on a given undirected d-regular graph with eO( 1 1−λ √ n) runtime per query, where λ is the second-largest eigenvalue of the random walk matrix of the graph in absolute value. Since random d-regular graphs G(n, d) are expanders with high probability, this gives an eO(√ n) algorithm for a graph drawn from G(n, d) whp, which improves on the naive method for small numbers of queries. We then prove that no algorithm with subconstant error given probe access to an input d-regular graph can have runtime better than Ω(√ n/ log(n)) per query in expectation when the input graph is drawn from G(n, d), obtaining a nearly matching lower bound. We further show an Ω(n1/4) runtime per query lowermore »
Motivated by applications in wireless networks and the Internet of Things, we consider a model of n nodes trying to reach consensus with high probability on their majority bit. Each node i is assigned a bit at time 0 and is a finite automaton with m bits of memory (i.e.,
states) and a Poisson clock. When the clock of i rings, i can choose to communicate and is then matched to a uniformly chosen node j. The nodes j and i may update their states based on the state of the other node. Previous work has focused on minimizing the time to consensus and the probability of error, while our goal is minimizing the number of communications. We show that, when , consensus can be reached with linear communication cost, but this is impossible if . A key step is to distinguish when nodes can become aware of knowing the majority bit and stop communicating. We show that this is impossible if their memory is too low.