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Title: Estimating Surface Attachment Kinetic and Growth Transition Influences on Vapor-Grown Ice Crystals
There are few measurements of the vapor growth of small ice crystals at temperatures below -30°C. Presented here are mass-growth measurements of heterogeneously and homogeneously frozen ice particles grown within an electrodynamic levitation diffusion chamber at temperatures between -44 and -30°C and supersaturations ( s i ) between 3 and 29%. These growth data are analyzed with two methods devised to estimate the deposition coefficient ( α) without the direct use of s i . Measurements of s i are typically uncertain, which has called past estimates of α into question. We find that the deposition coefficient ranges from 0.002 to unity and is scattered with temperature, as shown in prior measurements. The data collectively also show a relationship between α and s i , with α rising (falling) with increasing s i for homogeneously (heterogeneously) frozen ice. Analysis of the normalized mass growth rates reveals that heterogeneously-frozen crystals grow near the maximum rate at low s i , but show increasingly inhibited (low α) growth at high s i . Additionally, 7 of the 17 homogeneously frozen crystals cannot be modeled with faceted growth theory or constant α. These cases require the growth mode to transition from efficient to more » inefficient in time, leading to a large decline in α. Such transitions may be, in part, responsible for the inconsistency in prior measurements of α. « less
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Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences
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National Science Foundation
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