skip to main content

Title: Leveraging Schema Labels to Enhance Dataset Search
A search engine's ability to retrieve desirable datasets is important for data sharing and reuse. Existing dataset search engines typically rely on matching queries to dataset descriptions. However, a user may not have enough prior knowledge to write a query using terms that match with description text. We propose a novel schema label generation model which generates possible schema labels based on dataset table content. We incorporate the generated schema labels into a mixed ranking model which not only considers the relevance between the query and dataset metadata but also the similarity between the query and generated schema labels. To evaluate our method on real-world datasets, we create a new benchmark specifically for the dataset retrieval task. Experiments show that our approach can effectively improve the precision and NDCG scores of the dataset retrieval task compared with baseline methods. We also test on a collection of Wikipedia tables to show that the features generated from schema labels can improve the unsupervised and supervised web table retrieval task as well.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
42nd European Conference on Information Retrieval, LNCS
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. null (Ed.)
    We describe the development, characteristics and availability of a test collection for the task of Web table retrieval, which uses a large-scale Web Table Corpora extracted from the Common Crawl. Since a Web table usually has rich context information such as the page title and surrounding paragraphs, we not only provide relevance judgments of query-table pairs, but also the relevance judgments of query-table context pairs with respect to a query, which are ignored by previous test collections. To facilitate future research with this benchmark, we provide details about how the dataset is pre-processed and also baseline results from both traditional and recently proposed table retrieval methods. Our experimental results show that proper usage of context labels can benefit previous table retrieval methods. 
    more » « less
  2. Dense retrieval systems conduct first-stage retrieval using embedded representations and simple similarity metrics to match a query to documents. Its effectiveness depends on encoded embeddings to capture the semantics of queries and documents, a challenging task due to the shortness and ambiguity of search queries. This paper proposes ANCE-PRF, a new query encoder that uses pseudo relevance feedback (PRF) to improve query representations for dense retrieval. ANCE-PRF uses a BERT encoder that consumes the query and the top retrieved documents from a dense retrieval model, ANCE, and it learns to produce better query embeddings directly from relevance labels. It also keeps the document index unchanged to reduce overhead. ANCE-PRF significantly outperforms ANCE and other recent dense retrieval systems on several datasets. Analysis shows that the PRF encoder effectively captures the relevant and complementary information from PRF documents, while ignoring the noise with its learned attention mechanism. 
    more » « less
  3. The increasing reliance on robust data-driven decision-making across many domains has made it necessary for data management systems to manage many thousands to millions of versions of datasets, acquired or constructed at various stages of analysis pipelines over time. Delta encoding is an effective and widely-used solution to compactly store a large number of datasets, that simultaneously exploits redundancies across them and keeps the average retrieval cost of reconstructing any dataset low. However, supporting any kind of rich retrieval or querying functionality, beyond single dataset checkout, is challenging in such storage engines. In this paper, we initiate a systematic study of this problem, and present DEX, a novel stand-alone delta-oriented execution engine, whose goal is to take advantage of the already computed deltas between the datasets for efficient query processing. In this work, we study how to execute checkout, intersection, union and t-threshold queries over record-based files; we show that processing of even these basic queries leads to many new and unexplored challenges and trade-offs. Starting from a query plan that confines query execution to a small set of deltas, we introduce new transformation rules based on the algebraic properties of the deltas, that allow us to explore the search space of alternative plans. For the case of checkout, we present a dynamic programming algorithm to efficiently select the optimal query plan under our cost model, while we design efficient heuristics to select effective plans that vastly outperform the base checkout-then-query approach for other queries. A key characteristic of our query execution methods is that the computational cost is primarily dependent on the size and the number of deltas in the expression (typically small), and not the input dataset versions (which can be very large). We have implemented DEX prototype on top of git, a widely used version control system. We present an extensive experimental evaluation on synthetic data with diverse characteristics, that shows that our methods perform exceedingly well compared to the baseline. 
    more » « less
  4. Query by Example is a well-known information retrieval task in which a document is chosen by the user as the search query and the goal is to retrieve relevant documents from a large collection. However, a document often covers multiple aspects of a topic. To address this scenario we introduce the task of faceted Query by Example in which users can also specify a finer grained aspect in addition to the input query document. We focus on the application of this task in scientific literature search. We envision models which are able to retrieve scientific papers analogous to a query scientific paper along specifically chosen rhetorical structure elements as one solution to this problem. In this work, the rhetorical structure elements, which we refer to as facets, indicate objectives, methods, or results of a scientific paper. We introduce and describe an expert annotated test collection to evaluate models trained to perform this task. Our test collection consists of a diverse set of 50 query documents in English, drawn from computational linguistics and machine learning venues. We carefully follow the annotation guideline used by TREC for depth-k pooling (k = 100 or 250) and the resulting data collection consists of graded relevance scores with high annotation agreement. State of the art models evaluated on our dataset show a significant gap to be closed in further work. Our dataset may be accessed here: 
    more » « less
  5. null (Ed.)
    We address the problem of ad hoc table retrieval via a new neural architecture that incorporates both semantic and relevance matching. Understanding the connection between the structured form of a table and query tokens is an important yet neglected problem in information retrieval. We use a learning- to-rank approach to train a system to capture semantic and relevance signals within interactions between the structured form of candidate tables and query tokens. Convolutional filters that extract contextual features from query/table interactions are combined with a feature vector based on the distributions of term similarity between queries and tables. We propose using row and column summaries to incorporate table content into our new neural model. We evaluate our approach using two datasets, and we demonstrate substantial improvements in terms of retrieval metrics over state-of-the-art methods in table retrieval and document retrieval, and neural architectures from sentence, document, and table type classification adapted to the table retrieval task. Our ablation study supports the importance of both semantic and relevance matching in the table retrieval. 
    more » « less