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Experimental and computational studies of the mechanism of iron-catalysed C–H activation/functionalisation with allyl electrophilesSynthetic methods that utilise iron to facilitate C–H bond activation to yield new C–C and C–heteroatom bonds continue to attract significant interest. However, the development of these systems is still hampered by a limited molecular-level understanding of the key iron intermediates and reaction pathways that enable selective product formation. While recent studies have established the mechanism for iron-catalysed C–H arylation from aryl-nucleophiles, the underlying mechanistic pathway of iron-catalysed C–H activation/functionalisation systems which utilise electrophiles to establish C–C and C–heteroatom bonds has not been determined. The present study focuses on an iron-catalysed C–H allylation system, which utilises allyl chlorides as electrophiles to establish a C–allyl bond. Freeze-trapped inorganic spectroscopic methods ( 57 Fe Mössbauer, EPR, and MCD) are combined with correlated reaction studies and kinetic analyses to reveal a unique and rapid reaction pathway by which the allyl electrophile reacts with a C–H activated iron intermediate. Supporting computational analysis defines this novel reaction coordinate as an inner-sphere radical process which features a partial iron–bisphosphine dissociation. Highlighting the role of the bisphosphine in this reaction pathway, a complementary study performed on the reaction of allyl electrophile with an analogous C–H activated intermediate bearing a more rigid bisphosphine ligand exhibits stifled yield andmore »
Transamidation of Amides and Amidation of Esters by Selective N–C(O)/O–C(O) Cleavage Mediated by Air- and Moisture-Stable Half-Sandwich Nickel(II)–NHC ComplexesThe formation of amide bonds represents one of the most fundamental processes in organic synthesis. Transition-metal-catalyzed activation of acyclic twisted amides has emerged as an increasingly powerful platform in synthesis. Herein, we report the transamidation of N-activated twisted amides by selective N–C(O) cleavage mediated by air- and moisture-stable half-sandwich Ni(II)–NHC (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbenes) complexes. We demonstrate that the readily available cyclopentadienyl complex, [CpNi(IPr)Cl] (IPr = 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene), promotes highly selective transamidation of the N–C(O) bond in twisted N-Boc amides with non-nucleophilic anilines. The reaction provides access to secondary anilides via the non-conventional amide bond-forming pathway. Furthermore, the amidation of activated phenolic and unactivated methyl esters mediated by [CpNi(IPr)Cl] is reported. This study sets the stage for the broad utilization of well-defined, air- and moisture-stable Ni(II)–NHC complexes in catalytic amide bond-forming protocols by unconventional C(acyl)–N and C(acyl)–O bond cleavage reactions.
Non-Classical Amide Bond Formation: Transamidation and Amidation of Activated Amides and Esters by Selective N–C/O–C CleavageIn the past several years, tremendous advances have been made in non-classical routes for amide bond formation that involve transamidation and amidation reactions of activated amides and esters. These new methods enable the formation of extremely valuable amide bonds via transition-metal- catalyzed, transition-metal-free or metal-free pathways by exploiting chemoselective acyl C–X (X = N, O) cleavage under mild conditions. In a broadest sense, these reactions overcome the formidable challenge of activating C–N/C–O bonds of amides or esters by rationally tackling nN→π*C=O delocalization in amides and nO→π*C=O donation in esters. In this account, we summarize the recent remarkable advances in the development of new methods for the synthesis of amides with a focus on (1) transition-metal/NHC- catalyzed C–N/C–O bond activation, (2) transition-metal-free highly selective cleavage of C–N/C–O bonds, (3) the development of new acyl-transfer reagents, and (4) other emerging methods.
Selective functionalization of ubiquitous unactivated C–H bonds is a continuous quest for synthetic organic chemists. In addition to transition metal catalysis, which typically operates under a two-electron manifold, a recent renaissance in the radical approach relying on the hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) process has led to tremendous growth in the area. Despite several challenges, protocols proceeding via HAT are highly sought after as they allow for relatively easy activation of inert C–H bonds under mild conditions leading to a broader scope and higher functional group tolerance and sometimes complementary reactivity over methods relying on traditional transition metal catalysis. A number of methods operating via heteroatom-based HAT have been extensively reported over the past few years, while methods employing more challenging carbon analogues have been less explored. Recent developments of mild methodologies for generation of various carbon-centered radical species enabled their utilization in the HAT process, which, in turn, led to the development of remote C(sp 3 )–H functionalization reactions of alcohols, amines, amides and related compounds. This review covers mostly recent advances in C–H functionalization reactions involving the HAT step to carbon-centered radicals.
Unconventional mechanism and selectivity of the Pd-catalyzed C–H bond lactonization in aromatic carboxylic acid
The search for more effective and highly selective C–H bond oxidation of accessible hydrocarbons and biomolecules is a greatly attractive research mission. The elucidating of mechanism and controlling factors will, undoubtedly, help to broaden scope of these synthetic protocols, and enable discovery of more efficient, environmentally benign, and highly practical new C–H oxidation reactions. Here, we reveal the stepwise intramolecular SN2 nucleophilic substitution mechanism with the rate-limiting C–O bond formation step for the Pd(II)-catalyzed C(sp3)–H lactonization in aromatic 2,6-dimethylbenzoic acid. We show that for this reaction, the direct C–O reductive elimination from both Pd(II) and Pd(IV) (oxidized by O2oxidant) intermediates is unfavorable. Critical factors controlling the outcome of this reaction are the presence of the η3-(π-benzylic)–Pd and K+–O(carboxylic) interactions. The controlling factors of the benzylic vs ortho site-selectivity of this reaction are the: (a) difference in the strains of the generated lactone rings; (b) difference in the strengths of the η3-(π-benzylic)–Pd and η2-(π-phenyl)–Pd interactions, and (c) more pronounced electrostatic interaction between the nucleophilic oxygen and K+cation in the ortho-C–H activation transition state. The presented data indicate the utmost importance of base, substrate, and ligand in the selective C(sp3)–H bond lactonization in the presence of C(sp2)–H.