skip to main content

Title: 3D hydrodynamic simulations of C ingestion into a convective O shell
Abstract Interactions between convective shells in evolved massive stars have been linked to supernova impostors, to the production of the odd-Z elements Cl, K, and Sc, and they might also help generate the large-scale asphericities that are known to facilitate shock revival in supernova explosion models. We investigate the process of ingestion of C-shell material into a convective O-burning shell, including the hydrodynamic feedback from the nuclear burning of the ingested material. Our 3D hydrodynamic simulations span almost 3 dex in the total luminosity $L_\rm {tot}$. All but one of the simulations reach a quasi-stationary state with the entrainment rate and convective velocity proportional to $L_\rm {tot}$ and $L_\rm {tot}^{1/3}$, respectively. Carbon burning provides 14 – $33\%$ of the total luminosity, depending on the set of reactions considered. Equivalent simulations done on 7683 and 11523 grids are in excellent quantitative agreement. The flow is dominated by a few large-scale convective cells. An instability leading to large-scale oscillations with Mach numbers in excess of 0.2 develops in an experimental run with the energy yield from C burning increased by a factor of 10. This run represents most closely the conditions expected in a violent O-C shell merger, which is a potential production site more » for odd-Z elements such as K and Sc and which may seed asymmetries in the supernova progenitor. 1D simulations may underestimate the energy generation from the burning of ingested material by as much as a factor two owing to their missing the effect of clumpiness of entrained material on the nuclear reaction rate. « less
; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
972 - 992
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this

    We present a detailed near-infrared chemical abundance analysis of 10 red giant members of the Galactic open cluster NGC 752. High-resolution (R ≃ 45000) near-infrared spectral data were gathered with the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph, providing simultaneous coverage of the complete H and K bands. We derived the abundances of H-burning (C, N, O), α (Mg, Si, S, Ca), light odd-Z (Na, Al, P, K), Fe-group (Sc, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni), and neutron-capture (Ce, Nd, Yb) elements. We report the abundances of S, P, K, Ce, and Yb in NGC 752 for the first time. Our analysis yields solar-metallicity and solarmore »abundance ratios for almost all of the elements heavier than the CNO group in NGC 752. O and N abundances were measured from a number of OH and CN features in the H band, and C abundances were determined mainly from CO molecular lines in the K band. High-excitation $\rm{C\,\small {I}}$ lines present in both near-infrared and optical spectra were also included in the C abundance determinations. Carbon isotopic ratios were derived from the R-branch band heads of first overtone (2−0) and (3−1) 12CO and (2−0) 13CO lines near 23 440 Å and (3−1) 13CO lines at about 23 730 Å. The CNO abundances and 12C/13C ratios are all consistent with our giants having completed ‘first dredge-up’ envelope mixing of CN-cyle products. We independently assessed NGC 752 stellar membership from Gaia astrometry, leading to a new colour–magnitude diagram for this cluster. Applications of Victoria isochrones and MESA models to these data yield an updated NGC 752 cluster age (1.52 Gyr) and evolutionary stage indications for the programme stars. The photometric evidence and spectroscopic light element abundances all suggest that the most, perhaps all of the programme stars are members of the helium-burning red clump in this cluster.

    « less
  2. ABSTRACT We present two mixing models for post-processing of 3D hydrodynamic simulations applied to convective–reactive i-process nucleosynthesis in a rapidly accreting white dwarf (RAWD) with [Fe/H] = −2.6, in which H is ingested into a convective He shell. A 1D advective two-stream model adopts physically motivated radial and horizontal mixing coefficients constrained by 3D hydrodynamic simulations. A simpler approach uses diffusion coefficients calculated from the same simulations. All 3D simulations include the energy feedback of the 12C(p, γ)13N reaction from the H entrainment. Global oscillations of shell H ingestion in two of the RAWD simulations cause bursts of entrainment ofmore »H and non-radial hydrodynamic feedback. With the same nuclear network as in the 3D simulations, the 1D advective two-stream model reproduces the rate and location of the H burning within the He shell closely matching the 3D simulation predictions, as well as qualitatively displaying the asymmetry of the XH profiles between the upstream and downstream. With a full i-process network the advective mixing model captures the difference in the n-capture nucleosynthesis in the upstream and downstream. For example, 89Kr and 90Kr with half-lives of $3.18\,\,\mathrm{\mathrm{min}}$ and $32.3\,\,\mathrm{\mathrm{s}}$ differ by a factor 2–10 in the two streams. In this particular application the diffusion approach provides globally the same abundance distribution as the advective two-stream mixing model. The resulting i-process yields are in excellent agreement with observations of the exemplary CEMP-r/s star CS31062-050.« less
  3. Context. A realistic parametrization of convection and convective boundary mixing in conventional stellar evolution codes is still the subject of ongoing research. To improve the current situation, multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations are used to study convection in stellar interiors. Such simulations are numerically challenging, especially for flows at low Mach numbers which are typical for convection during early evolutionary stages. Aims. We explore the benefits of using a low-Mach hydrodynamic flux solver and demonstrate its usability for simulations in the astrophysical context. Simulations of convection for a realistic stellar profile are analyzed regarding the properties of convective boundary mixing. Methods. Themore »time-implicit Seven-League Hydro (SLH) code was used to perform multidimensional simulations of convective helium shell burning based on a 25  M ⊙ star model. The results obtained with the low-Mach AUSM + -up solver were compared to results when using its non low-Mach variant AUSM B + -up. We applied well-balancing of the gravitational source term to maintain the initial hydrostatic background stratification. The computational grids have resolutions ranging from 180 × 90 2 to 810 × 540 2 cells and the nuclear energy release was boosted by factors of 3 × 10 3 , 1 × 10 4 , and 3 × 10 4 to study the dependence of the results on these parameters. Results. The boosted energy input results in convection at Mach numbers in the range of 10 −3 –10 −2 . Standard mixing-length theory predicts convective velocities of about 1.6 × 10 −4 if no boosting is applied. The simulations with AUSM + -up show a Kolmogorov-like inertial range in the kinetic energy spectrum that extends further toward smaller scales compared with its non low-Mach variant. The kinetic energy dissipation of the AUSM + -up solver already converges at a lower resolution compared to AUSM B + -up. The extracted entrainment rates at the boundaries of the convection zone are well represented by the bulk Richardson entrainment law and the corresponding fitting parameters are in agreement with published results for carbon shell burning. However, our study needs to be validated by simulations at higher resolution. Further, we find that a general increase in the entropy in the convection zone may significantly contribute to the measured entrainment of the top boundary. Conclusion. This study demonstrates the successful application of the AUSM + -up solver to a realistic astrophysical setup. Compressible simulations of convection in early phases at nominal stellar luminosity will benefit from its low-Mach capabilities. Similar to other studies, our extrapolated entrainment rate for the helium-burning shell would lead to an unrealistic growth of the convection zone if it is applied over the lifetime of the zone. Studies at nominal stellar luminosities and different phases of the same convection zone are needed to detect a possible evolution of the entrainment rate and the impact of radiation on convective boundary mixing.« less
  4. ABSTRACT We present the discovery of ASASSN-18jd (AT 2018bcb), a luminous optical/ultraviolet(UV)/X-ray transient located in the nucleus of the galaxy 2MASX J22434289–1659083 at z = 0.1192. Over the year after discovery, Swift UltraViolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT) photometry shows the UV spectral energy distribution of the transient to be well modelled by a slowly shrinking blackbody with temperature $T \sim 2.5 \times 10^{4} \, {\rm K}$, a maximum observed luminosity of $L_{\rm max} = 4.5^{+0.6}_{-0.3}\times 10^{44} \, {\rm erg \,s}^{-1}$, and a radiated energy of $E = 9.6^{+1.1}_{-0.6} \times 10^{51} \, {\rm erg}$. X-ray data from Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and XMM–Newton showmore »a transient, variable X-ray flux with blackbody and power-law components that fade by nearly an order of magnitude over the following year. Optical spectra show strong, roughly constant broad Balmer emission and transient features attributable to He ii, N iii–v, O iii, and coronal Fe. While ASASSN-18jd shares similarities with tidal disruption events (TDEs), it is also similar to the newly discovered nuclear transients seen in quiescent galaxies and faint active galactic nuclei (AGNs).« less
  5. ABSTRACT In large-scale hydrodynamical cosmological simulations, the fate of massive galaxies is mainly dictated by the modelling of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The amount of energy released by AGN feedback is proportional to the mass that has been accreted on to the black holes (BHs), but the exact subgrid modelling of AGN feedback differs in all simulations. While modern simulations reliably produce populations of quiescent massive galaxies at z ≤ 2, it is also crucial to assess the similarities and differences of the responsible AGN populations. Here, we compare the AGN populations of the Illustris, TNG100, TNG300, Horizon-AGN,more »EAGLE, and SIMBA simulations. The AGN luminosity function (LF) varies significantly between simulations. Although in agreement with current observational constraints at z = 0, at higher redshift the agreement of the LFs deteriorates with most simulations producing too many AGNs of $L_{\rm x, 2\!-\!10 \, keV}\sim 10^{43\!-\!44}\, \rm erg\, s^{-1}$. AGN feedback in some simulations prevents the existence of any bright AGN with $L_{\rm x, 2\!-\!10 \, keV}\geqslant 10^{45}\rm \,erg\, s^{-1}$ (although this is sensitive to AGN variability), and leads to smaller fractions of AGN in massive galaxies than in the observations at z ≤ 2. We find that all the simulations fail at producing a number density of AGN in good agreement with observational constraints for both luminous ($L_{\rm x, 2\!-\!10 \, keV}\sim 10^\text{43-45}\, \rm erg\, s^{-1}$) and fainter ($L_{\rm x, 2\!-\!10 \, keV}\sim 10^\text{42-43}\, \rm erg\, s^{-1}$) AGNs and at both low and high redshifts. These differences can aid us in improving future BH and galaxy subgrid modelling in simulations. Upcoming X-ray missions (e.g. Athena, AXIS, and LynX) will bring faint AGNs to light and new powerful constraints. After accounting for AGN obscuration, we find that the predicted number density of detectable AGNs in future surveys spans at least one order of magnitude across the simulations, at any redshift.« less