skip to main content

Title: Homogeneous analysis of globular clusters from the APOGEE survey with the BACCHUS code – II. The Southern clusters and overview
ABSTRACT We investigate the Fe, C, N, O, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ce, and Nd abundances of 2283 red giant stars in 31 globular clusters from high-resolution spectra observed in both the Northern and Southern hemisphere by the SDSS-IV APOGEE-2 survey. This unprecedented homogeneous data set, largest to date, allows us to discuss the intrinsic Fe spread, the shape, and statistics of Al-Mg and N-C anti-correlations as a function of cluster mass, luminosity, age, and metallicity for all 31 clusters. We find that the Fe spread does not depend on these parameters within our uncertainties including cluster metallicity, contradicting earlier observations. We do not confirm the metallicity variations previously observed in M22 and NGC 1851. Some clusters show a bimodal Al distribution, while others exhibit a continuous distribution as has been previously reported in the literature. We confirm more than two populations in ω Cen and NGC 6752, and find new ones in M79. We discuss the scatter of Al by implementing a correction to the standard chemical evolution of Al in the Milky Way. After correction, its dependence on cluster mass is increased suggesting that the extent of Al enrichment as a function of mass was suppressed before the more » correction. We observe a turnover in the Mg-Al anticorrelation at very low Mg in ω Cen, similar to the pattern previously reported in M15 and M92. ω Cen may also have a weak K-Mg anticorrelation, and if confirmed, it would be only the third cluster known to show such a pattern. « less
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more » ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
1641 to 1670
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Context. NGC 6522 is a moderately metal-poor bulge globular cluster ([Fe/H]∼−1.0), and it is a well-studied representative among a number of moderately metal-poor blue horizontal branch clusters located in the bulge. The NGC 6522 abundance pattern can give hints on the earliest chemical enrichment in the central Galaxy. Aims. The aim of this study is to derive abundances of the light elements C and N; alpha elements O, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti; odd-Z elements Na and Al; neutron-capture elements Y, Zr, Ba, La, and Nd; and the r-process element Eu. We verify if there are first- and second-generation stars:more »we find clear evidence of Na-Al, Na-N, and Mg-Al correlations, while we cannot identify the Na-O anti-correlation from our data. Methods. High-resolution spectra of six red giants in the bulge globular cluster NGC 6522 were obtained at the 8m VLT UT2-Kueyen telescope with both the UVES and GIRAFFE spectrographs in FLAMES+UVES configuration. In light of Gaia data, it turned out that two of them are non-members, but these were also analysed. Spectroscopic parameters were derived through the excitation and ionisation equilibrium of Fe i and Fe ii lines from UVES spectra. The abundances were obtained with spectrum synthesis. Comparisons of abundances derived from UVES and GIRAFFE spectra were carried out. Results. The present analysis combined with previous UVES results gives a mean radial velocity of vhel = −15.62±7.7 km s−1 and a r metallicity of [Fe/H] = −1.05±0.20 for NGC 6522. Mean abundances of alpha elements for the present four member stars are enhanced with [O/Fe]=+0.38, [Mg/Fe]=≈+0.28, [Si/Fe]≈+0.19, and [Ca/Fe]≈+0.13, together with the iron-peak element [Ti/Fe]≈+0.13, and the r-process element [Eu/Fe]=+0.40. The neutron-capture elements Y, Zr, Ba, and La show enhancements in the +0.08 < [Y/Fe] < +0.90, 0.11 < [Zr/Fe] < +0.50, 0.00 < [Ba/Fe] < +0.63, 0.00 < [La/Fe] < +0.45, and -0.10 < [Nd/Fe] < +0.70 ranges. We also discuss the spread in heavy-element abundances.« less

    We present a detailed near-infrared chemical abundance analysis of 10 red giant members of the Galactic open cluster NGC 752. High-resolution (R ≃ 45000) near-infrared spectral data were gathered with the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph, providing simultaneous coverage of the complete H and K bands. We derived the abundances of H-burning (C, N, O), α (Mg, Si, S, Ca), light odd-Z (Na, Al, P, K), Fe-group (Sc, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni), and neutron-capture (Ce, Nd, Yb) elements. We report the abundances of S, P, K, Ce, and Yb in NGC 752 for the first time. Our analysis yields solar-metallicity and solarmore »abundance ratios for almost all of the elements heavier than the CNO group in NGC 752. O and N abundances were measured from a number of OH and CN features in the H band, and C abundances were determined mainly from CO molecular lines in the K band. High-excitation $\rm{C\,\small {I}}$ lines present in both near-infrared and optical spectra were also included in the C abundance determinations. Carbon isotopic ratios were derived from the R-branch band heads of first overtone (2−0) and (3−1) 12CO and (2−0) 13CO lines near 23 440 Å and (3−1) 13CO lines at about 23 730 Å. The CNO abundances and 12C/13C ratios are all consistent with our giants having completed ‘first dredge-up’ envelope mixing of CN-cyle products. We independently assessed NGC 752 stellar membership from Gaia astrometry, leading to a new colour–magnitude diagram for this cluster. Applications of Victoria isochrones and MESA models to these data yield an updated NGC 752 cluster age (1.52 Gyr) and evolutionary stage indications for the programme stars. The photometric evidence and spectroscopic light element abundances all suggest that the most, perhaps all of the programme stars are members of the helium-burning red clump in this cluster.

    « less
  3. ABSTRACT Studies of the kinematics and chemical compositions of Galactic globular clusters (GCs) enable the reconstruction of the history of star formation, chemical evolution, and mass assembly of the Galaxy. Using the latest data release (DR16) of the SDSS/APOGEE survey, we identify 3090 stars associated with 46 GCs. Using a previously defined kinematic association, we break the sample down into eight separate groups and examine how the kinematics-based classification maps into chemical composition space, considering only α (mostly Si and Mg) elements and Fe. Our results show that (i) the loci of both in situ and accreted subgroups in chemical spacemore »match those of their field counterparts; (ii) GCs from different individual accreted subgroups occupy the same locus in chemical space. This could either mean that they share a similar origin or that they are associated with distinct satellites which underwent similar chemical enrichment histories; (iii) the chemical compositions of the GCs associated with the low orbital energy subgroup defined by Massari and collaborators is broadly consistent with an in situ origin. However, at the low-metallicity end, the distinction between accreted and in situ populations is blurred; (iv) regarding the status of GCs whose origin is ambiguous, we conclude the following: the position in Si–Fe plane suggests an in situ origin for Liller 1 and a likely accreted origin for NGC 5904 and NGC 6388. The case of NGC 288 is unclear, as its orbital properties suggest an accretion origin, its chemical composition suggests it may have formed in situ.« less
  4. Abstract We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photometric results for NGC 6402, a highly reddened, very luminous Galactic globular cluster (GC). Recent spectroscopic observations of its red giant stars have shown a quite peculiar behavior in the chemistry of its multiple populations. These results have prompted UV and optical HST observations aimed at obtaining the cluster’s “chromosome map” (ChM), an efficient tool for classifying GCs and characterizing their multiple populations. We find that the discontinuity in the abundance distributions of O, Mg, Al, and Na inferred from spectroscopy is more nuanced in the ChM, which is mostly sensitive to nitrogen.more »Nevertheless, photometry in optical bands reveals a double main sequence, indicating a discontinuity in the helium content of the populations. The population with the largest chemical anomalies (extreme) peaks at a helium mass fraction Y ∼ 0.31. This helium content is consistent with results from the analysis of the distribution of horizontal branch stars and the spectrophotometry of the red giants. The ChM and the color–magnitude diagrams are compared with those of NGC 2808, a prototype GC with helium abundances up to Y ≳ 0.35, and both confirm that NGC 6402 does not host stellar populations with such extreme helium content. Further, the ChM reveals the presence of a group of stars with higher metallicity, thus indicating that NGC 6402 is a Type II cluster. The modalities of formation of the multiple populations in NGC 6402 are briefly surveyed, with main attention on the asymptotic giant branch and supermassive star models, and on possible cluster merging.« less
  5. ABSTRACT Disentangling distinct stellar populations along the red-giant branches (RGBs) of globular clusters (GCs) is possible by using the pseudo-two-colour diagram dubbed chromosome map (ChM). One of the most intriguing findings is that the so-called first-generation (1G) stars, characterized by the same chemical composition of their natal cloud, exhibit extended sequences in the ChM. Unresolved binaries and internal variations in helium or metallicity have been suggested to explain this phenomenon. Here, we derive high-precision Hubble Space Telescope photometry of the GCs NGC 6362 and NGC 6838 and build their ChMs. We find that both 1G RGB and main-sequence (MS) stars exhibit widermore »ChM sequences than those of second-generation (2G). The evidence of this feature even among unevolved 1G MS stars indicates that chemical inhomogeneities are imprinted in the original gas. We introduce a pseudo-two-magnitude diagram to distinguish between helium and metallicity, and demonstrate that star-to-star metallicity variations are responsible for the extended 1G sequence. Conversely, binaries provide a minor contribution to the phenomenon. We estimate that the metallicity variations within 1G stars of 55 GCs range from less than [Fe/H]∼0.05 to ∼0.30 and mildly correlate with cluster mass. We exploit these findings to constrain the formation scenarios of multiple populations showing that they are qualitatively consistent with the occurrence of multiple generations. In contrast, the fact that 2G stars have more homogeneous iron content than the 1G challenges the scenarios based on accretion of material processed in massive 1G stars on to existing protostars.« less