In this paper, we consider the problem of constructing paths using decode and forward (DF) relays for millimeter wave (mmWave) backhaul communications in urban environments. Due to the large number of obstacles in urban environments, line-of-sight (LoS) wireless links, which are necessary for backhaul communication, often do not exist between small-cell base stations. To address this, some earlier works proposed creating multi-hop paths that use mmWave relay nodes with LoS communication between every pair of consecutive nodes to form logical links between base stations. We present algorithms, based on a novel widest-path formulation of the problem, for selecting decode and forward relay node locations in such paths. Our main algorithm is the first polynomial-time algorithm that constructs a relay path with a throughput that is proven to be the maximum possible. We also present variations of this algorithm for constrained problems in which: 1) each possible relay location can host only one relay node, and 2) minimizing the number of hops in the relay path is also an objective. For all of the proposed algorithms, the achievable throughput and numbers of relays are evaluated through simulation based on a 3-D model of a section of downtown Atlanta. The results showmore »
Joint Link-level and Network-level Reconfiguration for mmWave Backhaul Survivability in Urban Environments
mmWave communication has been recognized as a highly promising technology for 5G wireless backhaul, which is capable of providing multi-gigabit per second transmission rates. However, in urban wireless backhaul environments, unforeseen events can cause short-term blockages or node failures and, therefore, network survivability is extremely important. In this paper, we investigate a novel relay-assisted mmWave backhaul network architecture, where a number of small-cell BSs and relays are deployed, e.g. on the lampposts of urban streets. Relays are used to provide multi-hop line-of-sight paths between small-cell BSs, which form logical links of the network. In this scenario, the interconnected logical links make up a mesh network, which offers opportunities for both link-level and network-level reconfiguration. We propose two joint link-network level reconfiguration schemes for recovery after exceptional events. One prioritizes relay path (link-level) reconfiguration and uses alternate network-level paths only if necessary. The other splits traffic on both reconfigured links and backup paths to improve network throughput. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed schemes significantly outperform purely link-level and purely network-level reconfiguration schemes. The proposed approaches are shown to not only maintain high network throughput but to also provide robust blockage/fault tolerance across a range of scenarios for urban mmWave backhaul more »
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Proceedings of the 22nd International ACM Conference on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 143 to 151
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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In this paper, we investigate the design of high throughput relay-assisted millimeter-wave (mmWave) backhaul networks in urban areas. Different from most related works, we consider the deployment of dedicated simple mmWave relay devices to help enhance the line-of-sight (LoS) connectivity of the backhaul network in urban areas with abundant obstacles. Given a set of (logical) backhaul links between base stations in the network, we propose an algorithm to find high-throughput LoS paths with relays for all logical links by minimizing interference within and between paths. We also propose methods to modify the backhaul topology to increase the probability of finding high-throughput paths using our algorithm. Extensive simulations, based on a 3-D model of a section of downtown Atlanta, demonstrate that high-throughput topologies, with minimal inter-path and intra-path interference, are feasible in most cases. The analyses also yield some insights on the mmWave backhaul network design problem.
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