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Title: Fluorescent materials-based information storage
The third industrial revolution has brought mankind into the information age. The development of information storage materials has played a key role in this transformation. Such materials have seen use in many application areas, including computing, logistics, and medicine. Information storage materials run the gamut from magnetic information storage media to molecular-based information storage materials. Among these, fluorescent-based information storage materials are of particular interest due to their unique properties, including an ability to store information with high levels of security, maintain mechanical stability, and respond to appropriately chosen external stimuli. In this review, we focus on recent advances involving the preparation and study of fluorescent materials-based information storage codes. For organisational purposes, these codes are treated according to the dimensionality of the code system in question, namely 1D-, 2D-, and 3D-type codes. The present review is designed to provide a succinct summary of what has been accomplished in the area, while outlining existing challenges and noting directions for future development.
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Materials Chemistry Frontiers
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1024 to 1039
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Obeid, Iyad Selesnick (Ed.)
    Electroencephalography (EEG) is a popular clinical monitoring tool used for diagnosing brain-related disorders such as epilepsy [1]. As monitoring EEGs in a critical-care setting is an expensive and tedious task, there is a great interest in developing real-time EEG monitoring tools to improve patient care quality and efficiency [2]. However, clinicians require automatic seizure detection tools that provide decisions with at least 75% sensitivity and less than 1 false alarm (FA) per 24 hours [3]. Some commercial tools recently claim to reach such performance levels, including the Olympic Brainz Monitor [4] and Persyst 14 [5]. In this abstract, we describe our efforts to transform a high-performance offline seizure detection system [3] into a low latency real-time or online seizure detection system. An overview of the system is shown in Figure 1. The main difference between an online versus offline system is that an online system should always be causal and has minimum latency which is often defined by domain experts. The offline system, shown in Figure 2, uses two phases of deep learning models with postprocessing [3]. The channel-based long short term memory (LSTM) model (Phase 1 or P1) processes linear frequency cepstral coefficients (LFCC) [6] features from each EEGmore »channel separately. We use the hypotheses generated by the P1 model and create additional features that carry information about the detected events and their confidence. The P2 model uses these additional features and the LFCC features to learn the temporal and spatial aspects of the EEG signals using a hybrid convolutional neural network (CNN) and LSTM model. Finally, Phase 3 aggregates the results from both P1 and P2 before applying a final postprocessing step. The online system implements Phase 1 by taking advantage of the Linux piping mechanism, multithreading techniques, and multi-core processors. To convert Phase 1 into an online system, we divide the system into five major modules: signal preprocessor, feature extractor, event decoder, postprocessor, and visualizer. The system reads 0.1-second frames from each EEG channel and sends them to the feature extractor and the visualizer. The feature extractor generates LFCC features in real time from the streaming EEG signal. Next, the system computes seizure and background probabilities using a channel-based LSTM model and applies a postprocessor to aggregate the detected events across channels. The system then displays the EEG signal and the decisions simultaneously using a visualization module. The online system uses C++, Python, TensorFlow, and PyQtGraph in its implementation. The online system accepts streamed EEG data sampled at 250 Hz as input. The system begins processing the EEG signal by applying a TCP montage [8]. Depending on the type of the montage, the EEG signal can have either 22 or 20 channels. To enable the online operation, we send 0.1-second (25 samples) length frames from each channel of the streamed EEG signal to the feature extractor and the visualizer. Feature extraction is performed sequentially on each channel. The signal preprocessor writes the sample frames into two streams to facilitate these modules. In the first stream, the feature extractor receives the signals using stdin. In parallel, as a second stream, the visualizer shares a user-defined file with the signal preprocessor. This user-defined file holds raw signal information as a buffer for the visualizer. The signal preprocessor writes into the file while the visualizer reads from it. Reading and writing into the same file poses a challenge. The visualizer can start reading while the signal preprocessor is writing into it. To resolve this issue, we utilize a file locking mechanism in the signal preprocessor and visualizer. Each of the processes temporarily locks the file, performs its operation, releases the lock, and tries to obtain the lock after a waiting period. The file locking mechanism ensures that only one process can access the file by prohibiting other processes from reading or writing while one process is modifying the file [9]. The feature extractor uses circular buffers to save 0.3 seconds or 75 samples from each channel for extracting 0.2-second or 50-sample long center-aligned windows. The module generates 8 absolute LFCC features where the zeroth cepstral coefficient is replaced by a temporal domain energy term. For extracting the rest of the features, three pipelines are used. The differential energy feature is calculated in a 0.9-second absolute feature window with a frame size of 0.1 seconds. The difference between the maximum and minimum temporal energy terms is calculated in this range. Then, the first derivative or the delta features are calculated using another 0.9-second window. Finally, the second derivative or delta-delta features are calculated using a 0.3-second window [6]. The differential energy for the delta-delta features is not included. In total, we extract 26 features from the raw sample windows which add 1.1 seconds of delay to the system. We used the Temple University Hospital Seizure Database (TUSZ) v1.2.1 for developing the online system [10]. The statistics for this dataset are shown in Table 1. A channel-based LSTM model was trained using the features derived from the train set using the online feature extractor module. A window-based normalization technique was applied to those features. In the offline model, we scale features by normalizing using the maximum absolute value of a channel [11] before applying a sliding window approach. Since the online system has access to a limited amount of data, we normalize based on the observed window. The model uses the feature vectors with a frame size of 1 second and a window size of 7 seconds. We evaluated the model using the offline P1 postprocessor to determine the efficacy of the delayed features and the window-based normalization technique. As shown by the results of experiments 1 and 4 in Table 2, these changes give us a comparable performance to the offline model. The online event decoder module utilizes this trained model for computing probabilities for the seizure and background classes. These posteriors are then postprocessed to remove spurious detections. The online postprocessor receives and saves 8 seconds of class posteriors in a buffer for further processing. It applies multiple heuristic filters (e.g., probability threshold) to make an overall decision by combining events across the channels. These filters evaluate the average confidence, the duration of a seizure, and the channels where the seizures were observed. The postprocessor delivers the label and confidence to the visualizer. The visualizer starts to display the signal as soon as it gets access to the signal file, as shown in Figure 1 using the “Signal File” and “Visualizer” blocks. Once the visualizer receives the label and confidence for the latest epoch from the postprocessor, it overlays the decision and color codes that epoch. The visualizer uses red for seizure with the label SEIZ and green for the background class with the label BCKG. Once the streaming finishes, the system saves three files: a signal file in which the sample frames are saved in the order they were streamed, a time segmented event (TSE) file with the overall decisions and confidences, and a hypotheses (HYP) file that saves the label and confidence for each epoch. The user can plot the signal and decisions using the signal and HYP files with only the visualizer by enabling appropriate options. For comparing the performance of different stages of development, we used the test set of TUSZ v1.2.1 database. It contains 1015 EEG records of varying duration. The any-overlap performance [12] of the overall system shown in Figure 2 is 40.29% sensitivity with 5.77 FAs per 24 hours. For comparison, the previous state-of-the-art model developed on this database performed at 30.71% sensitivity with 6.77 FAs per 24 hours [3]. The individual performances of the deep learning phases are as follows: Phase 1’s (P1) performance is 39.46% sensitivity and 11.62 FAs per 24 hours, and Phase 2 detects seizures with 41.16% sensitivity and 11.69 FAs per 24 hours. We trained an LSTM model with the delayed features and the window-based normalization technique for developing the online system. Using the offline decoder and postprocessor, the model performed at 36.23% sensitivity with 9.52 FAs per 24 hours. The trained model was then evaluated with the online modules. The current performance of the overall online system is 45.80% sensitivity with 28.14 FAs per 24 hours. Table 2 summarizes the performances of these systems. The performance of the online system deviates from the offline P1 model because the online postprocessor fails to combine the events as the seizure probability fluctuates during an event. The modules in the online system add a total of 11.1 seconds of delay for processing each second of the data, as shown in Figure 3. In practice, we also count the time for loading the model and starting the visualizer block. When we consider these facts, the system consumes 15 seconds to display the first hypothesis. The system detects seizure onsets with an average latency of 15 seconds. Implementing an automatic seizure detection model in real time is not trivial. We used a variety of techniques such as the file locking mechanism, multithreading, circular buffers, real-time event decoding, and signal-decision plotting to realize the system. A video demonstrating the system is available at: The final conference submission will include a more detailed analysis of the online performance of each module. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Research reported in this publication was most recently supported by the National Science Foundation Partnership for Innovation award number IIP-1827565 and the Pennsylvania Commonwealth Universal Research Enhancement Program (PA CURE). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official views of any of these organizations. REFERENCES [1] A. Craik, Y. He, and J. L. Contreras-Vidal, “Deep learning for electroencephalogram (EEG) classification tasks: a review,” J. Neural Eng., vol. 16, no. 3, p. 031001, 2019. [2] A. C. Bridi, T. Q. Louro, and R. C. L. Da Silva, “Clinical Alarms in intensive care: implications of alarm fatigue for the safety of patients,” Rev. Lat. Am. Enfermagem, vol. 22, no. 6, p. 1034, 2014. [3] M. Golmohammadi, V. Shah, I. Obeid, and J. Picone, “Deep Learning Approaches for Automatic Seizure Detection from Scalp Electroencephalograms,” in Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology: Emerging Trends in Research and Applications, 1st ed., I. Obeid, I. Selesnick, and J. Picone, Eds. New York, New York, USA: Springer, 2020, pp. 233–274. [4] “CFM Olympic Brainz Monitor.” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 17-Jul-2020]. [5] M. L. Scheuer, S. B. Wilson, A. Antony, G. Ghearing, A. Urban, and A. I. Bagic, “Seizure Detection: Interreader Agreement and Detection Algorithm Assessments Using a Large Dataset,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol., 2020. [6] A. Harati, M. Golmohammadi, S. Lopez, I. Obeid, and J. Picone, “Improved EEG Event Classification Using Differential Energy,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology Symposium, 2015, pp. 1–4. [7] V. Shah, C. Campbell, I. Obeid, and J. Picone, “Improved Spatio-Temporal Modeling in Automated Seizure Detection using Channel-Dependent Posteriors,” Neurocomputing, 2021. [8] W. Tatum, A. Husain, S. Benbadis, and P. Kaplan, Handbook of EEG Interpretation. New York City, New York, USA: Demos Medical Publishing, 2007. [9] D. P. Bovet and C. Marco, Understanding the Linux Kernel, 3rd ed. O’Reilly Media, Inc., 2005. [10] V. Shah et al., “The Temple University Hospital Seizure Detection Corpus,” Front. Neuroinform., vol. 12, pp. 1–6, 2018. [11] F. Pedregosa et al., “Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python,” J. Mach. Learn. Res., vol. 12, pp. 2825–2830, 2011. [12] J. Gotman, D. Flanagan, J. Zhang, and B. Rosenblatt, “Automatic seizure detection in the newborn: Methods and initial evaluation,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 356–362, 1997.« less
  2. BACKGROUND Optical sensing devices measure the rich physical properties of an incident light beam, such as its power, polarization state, spectrum, and intensity distribution. Most conventional sensors, such as power meters, polarimeters, spectrometers, and cameras, are monofunctional and bulky. For example, classical Fourier-transform infrared spectrometers and polarimeters, which characterize the optical spectrum in the infrared and the polarization state of light, respectively, can occupy a considerable portion of an optical table. Over the past decade, the development of integrated sensing solutions by using miniaturized devices together with advanced machine-learning algorithms has accelerated rapidly, and optical sensing research has evolved into a highly interdisciplinary field that encompasses devices and materials engineering, condensed matter physics, and machine learning. To this end, future optical sensing technologies will benefit from innovations in device architecture, discoveries of new quantum materials, demonstrations of previously uncharacterized optical and optoelectronic phenomena, and rapid advances in the development of tailored machine-learning algorithms. ADVANCES Recently, a number of sensing and imaging demonstrations have emerged that differ substantially from conventional sensing schemes in the way that optical information is detected. A typical example is computational spectroscopy. In this new paradigm, a compact spectrometer first collectively captures the comprehensive spectral information ofmore »an incident light beam using multiple elements or a single element under different operational states and generates a high-dimensional photoresponse vector. An advanced algorithm then interprets the vector to achieve reconstruction of the spectrum. This scheme shifts the physical complexity of conventional grating- or interference-based spectrometers to computation. Moreover, many of the recent developments go well beyond optical spectroscopy, and we discuss them within a common framework, dubbed “geometric deep optical sensing.” The term “geometric” is intended to emphasize that in this sensing scheme, the physical properties of an unknown light beam and the corresponding photoresponses can be regarded as points in two respective high-dimensional vector spaces and that the sensing process can be considered to be a mapping from one vector space to the other. The mapping can be linear, nonlinear, or highly entangled; for the latter two cases, deep artificial neural networks represent a natural choice for the encoding and/or decoding processes, from which the term “deep” is derived. In addition to this classical geometric view, the quantum geometry of Bloch electrons in Hilbert space, such as Berry curvature and quantum metrics, is essential for the determination of the polarization-dependent photoresponses in some optical sensors. In this Review, we first present a general perspective of this sensing scheme from the viewpoint of information theory, in which the photoresponse measurement and the extraction of light properties are deemed as information-encoding and -decoding processes, respectively. We then discuss demonstrations in which a reconfigurable sensor (or an array thereof), enabled by device reconfigurability and the implementation of neural networks, can detect the power, polarization state, wavelength, and spatial features of an incident light beam. OUTLOOK As increasingly more computing resources become available, optical sensing is becoming more computational, with device reconfigurability playing a key role. On the one hand, advanced algorithms, including deep neural networks, will enable effective decoding of high-dimensional photoresponse vectors, which reduces the physical complexity of sensors. Therefore, it will be important to integrate memory cells near or within sensors to enable efficient processing and interpretation of a large amount of photoresponse data. On the other hand, analog computation based on neural networks can be performed with an array of reconfigurable devices, which enables direct multiplexing of sensing and computing functions. We anticipate that these two directions will become the engineering frontier of future deep sensing research. On the scientific frontier, exploring quantum geometric and topological properties of new quantum materials in both linear and nonlinear light-matter interactions will enrich the information-encoding pathways for deep optical sensing. In addition, deep sensing schemes will continue to benefit from the latest developments in machine learning. Future highly compact, multifunctional, reconfigurable, and intelligent sensors and imagers will find applications in medical imaging, environmental monitoring, infrared astronomy, and many other areas of our daily lives, especially in the mobile domain and the internet of things. Schematic of deep optical sensing. The n -dimensional unknown information ( w ) is encoded into an m -dimensional photoresponse vector ( x ) by a reconfigurable sensor (or an array thereof), from which w′ is reconstructed by a trained neural network ( n ′ = n and w′   ≈   w ). Alternatively, x may be directly deciphered to capture certain properties of w . Here, w , x , and w′ can be regarded as points in their respective high-dimensional vector spaces ℛ n , ℛ m , and ℛ n ′ .« less
  3. Abstract

    DNA is a compelling alternative to non-volatile information storage technologies due to its information density, stability, and energy efficiency. Previous studies have used artificially synthesized DNA to store data and automated next-generation sequencing to read it back. Here, we report digital Nucleic Acid Memory (dNAM) for applications that require a limited amount of data to have high information density, redundancy, and copy number. In dNAM, data is encoded by selecting combinations of single-stranded DNA with (1) or without (0) docking-site domains. When self-assembled with scaffold DNA, staple strands form DNA origami breadboards. Information encoded into the breadboards is read by monitoring the binding of fluorescent imager probes using DNA-PAINT super-resolution microscopy. To enhance data retention, a multi-layer error correction scheme that combines fountain and bi-level parity codes is used. As a prototype, fifteen origami encoded with ‘Data is in our DNA!\n’ are analyzed. Each origami encodes unique data-droplet, index, orientation, and error-correction information. The error-correction algorithms fully recover the message when individual docking sites, or entire origami, are missing. Unlike other approaches to DNA-based data storage, reading dNAM does not require sequencing. As such, it offers an additional path to explore the advantages and disadvantages of DNA as anmore »emerging memory material.

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  4. Background: Photoluminescent materials have been used for diverse applications in thefields of science and engineering, such as optical storage, biological labeling, noninvasive imaging,solid-state lasers, light-emitting diodes, theranostics/theragnostics, up-conversion lasers, solar cells,spectrum modifiers, photodynamic therapy remote controllers, optical waveguide amplifiers andtemperature sensors. Nanosized luminescent materials could be ideal candidates in these applications.

    Objective: This review is to present a brief overview of photoluminescent nanofibers obtainedthrough electrospinning and their emission characteristics.

    Methods: To prepare bulk-scale nanosized materials efficiently and cost-effectively, electrospinningis a widely used technique. By the electrospinning method, a sufficiently high direct-current voltageis applied to a polymer solution or melt; and at a certain critical point when the electrostatic forceovercomes the surface tension, the droplet is stretched to form nanofibers. Polymer solutions or meltswith a high degree of molecular cohesion due to intermolecular interactions are the feedstock. Subsequentcalcination in air or specific gas may be required to remove the organic elements to obtainthe desired composition.

    Results: The luminescent nanofibers are classified based on the composition, structure, and synthesismaterial. The photoluminescent emission characteristics of the nanofibers reveal intriguing featuressuch as polarized emission, energy transfer, fluorescent quenching, and sensing. An overview of theprocess, controlling parameters and techniques associated with electrospinning of organic, inorganicand composite nanofibers aremore »discussed in detail. The scope and potential applications of these luminescentfibers also conversed.

    Conclusion: The electrospinning process is a matured technique to produce nanofibers on a largescale. Organic nanofibers have exhibited superior fluorescent emissions for waveguides, LEDs andlasing devices, and inorganic nanofibers for high-end sensors, scintillators, and catalysts. Multifunctionalitiescan be achieved for photovoltaics, sensing, drug delivery, magnetism, catalysis, andso on. The potential of these nanofibers can be extended but not limited to smart clothing, tissueengineering, energy harvesting, energy storage, communication, safe data storage, etc. and it isanticipated that in the near future, luminescent nanofibers will find many more applications in diversescientific disciplines.

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  5. Background Comprehensive exams such as the Dean-Woodcock Neuropsychological Assessment System, the Global Deterioration Scale, and the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination are the gold standard for doctors and clinicians in the preliminary assessment and monitoring of neurocognitive function in conditions such as neurodegenerative diseases and acquired brain injuries (ABIs). In recent years, there has been an increased focus on implementing these exams on mobile devices to benefit from their configurable built-in sensors, in addition to scoring, interpretation, and storage capabilities. As smartphones become more accepted in health care among both users and clinicians, the ability to use device information (eg, device position, screen interactions, and app usage) for subject monitoring also increases. Sensor-based assessments (eg, functional gait using a mobile device’s accelerometer and/or gyroscope or collection of speech samples using recordings from the device’s microphone) include the potential for enhanced information for diagnoses of neurological conditions; mapping the development of these conditions over time; and monitoring efficient, evidence-based rehabilitation programs. Objective This paper provides an overview of neurocognitive conditions and relevant functions of interest, analysis of recent results using smartphone and/or tablet built-in sensor information for the assessment of these different neurocognitive conditions, and how human-device interactions and the assessment andmore »monitoring of these neurocognitive functions can be enhanced for both the patient and health care provider. Methods This survey presents a review of current mobile technological capabilities to enhance the assessment of various neurocognitive conditions, including both neurodegenerative diseases and ABIs. It explores how device features can be configured for assessments as well as the enhanced capability and data monitoring that will arise due to the addition of these features. It also recognizes the challenges that will be apparent with the transfer of these current assessments to mobile devices. Results Built-in sensor information on mobile devices is found to provide information that can enhance neurocognitive assessment and monitoring across all functional categories. Configurations of positional sensors (eg, accelerometer, gyroscope, and GPS), media sensors (eg, microphone and camera), inherent sensors (eg, device timer), and participatory user-device interactions (eg, screen interactions, metadata input, app usage, and device lock and unlock) are all helpful for assessing these functions for the purposes of training, monitoring, diagnosis, or rehabilitation. Conclusions This survey discusses some of the many opportunities and challenges of implementing configured built-in sensors on mobile devices to enhance assessments and monitoring of neurocognitive functions as well as disease progression across neurodegenerative and acquired neurological conditions.« less