- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Chemical Science
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 8025 to 8034
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Dynamic allostery emphasizes a role of entropy change manifested as a sole change in protein fluctuations without structural changes. This kind of entropy-driven effect remains largely understudied. The most significant examples involve protein-ligand interactions, leaving protein-protein interactions, which are critical in signaling and other cellular events, largely unexplored. Here we study an example of how protein-protein interaction (binding of Ras to the Ras binding domain [RBD] of the effector protein Raf) affects a subsequent protein association process (Ras dimerization) by quenching Ras internal motions through dynamic allostery. We also investigate the influence of point mutations or ambient temperature, respectively, on the protein dynamics and interaction of two other systems: in adenylate kinase (ADK) and in the EphA2 SAM:Ship2 SAM complex. Based on these examples, we postulate that there are different ways in which dynamic-change-driven protein interactions are manifested and that it is likely a general biological phenomenon.
SSIPe: accurately estimating protein–protein binding affinity change upon mutations using evolutionary profiles in combination with an optimized physical energy function
Most proteins perform their biological functions through interactions with other proteins in cells. Amino acid mutations, especially those occurring at protein interfaces, can change the stability of protein–protein interactions (PPIs) and impact their functions, which may cause various human diseases. Quantitative estimation of the binding affinity changes (ΔΔGbind) caused by mutations can provide critical information for protein function annotation and genetic disease diagnoses.
We present SSIPe, which combines protein interface profiles, collected from structural and sequence homology searches, with a physics-based energy function for accurate ΔΔGbind estimation. To offset the statistical limits of the PPI structure and sequence databases, amino acid-specific pseudocounts were introduced to enhance the profile accuracy. SSIPe was evaluated on large-scale experimental data containing 2204 mutations from 177 proteins, where training and test datasets were stringently separated with the sequence identity between proteins from the two datasets below 30%. The Pearson correlation coefficient between estimated and experimental ΔΔGbind was 0.61 with a root-mean-square-error of 1.93 kcal/mol, which was significantly better than the other methods. Detailed data analyses revealed that the major advantage of SSIPe over other traditional approaches lies in the novel combination of the physical energy function with the new knowledge-based interface profile. SSIPe also considerablymore »
Availability and implementation
Web-server/standalone program, source code and datasets are freely available at https://zhanglab.ccmb.med.umich.edu/SSIPe and https://github.com/tommyhuangthu/SSIPe.
Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Ras dimerization is critical for Raf activation. Here we show that the Ras binding domain of Raf (Raf-RBD) induces robust Ras dimerization at low surface densities on supported lipid bilayers and, to a lesser extent, in solution as observed by size exclusion chromatography and confirmed by SAXS. Community network analysis based on molecular dynamics simulations shows robust allosteric connections linking the two Raf-RBD D113 residues located in the Galectin scaffold protein binding site of each Raf-RBD molecule and 85 Å apart on opposite ends of the dimer complex. Our results suggest that Raf-RBD binding and Ras dimerization are concerted events that lead to a high-affinity signaling complex at the membrane that we propose is an essential unit in the macromolecular assembly of higher order Ras/Raf/Galectin complexes important for signaling through the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway.
Activation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) at the cell surface initiates signaling through the RAS-RAF-MAPK/ERK1/2 pathway and receptor endocytosis. Whether this signaling continues from endosomes remains unclear, because RAS is predominantly located on the plasma membrane, and the localization of endogenous RAF kinases, downstream effectors of RAS, is not defined. To examine RAF localization, we labeled endogenous RAF1 with mVenus using gene editing. From 10 to 15% of RAF1-mVenus (<2000 molecules/cell), which was initially entirely cytosolic, transiently translocated to the plasma membrane after EGF stimulation. Following an early burst of translocation, the membrane-associated RAF1-mVenus was undetectable by microscopy or subcellular fractionation, and this pool was estimated to be <200 molecules per cell. In contrast, persistent EGF-dependent translocation of RAF1-mVenus to the plasma membrane was driven by the RAF inhibitor sorafenib, which increases the affinity of Ras-GTP:RAF1 interactions. RAF1-mVenus was not found in EGFR-containing endosomes under any conditions. Computational modeling of RAF1 dynamics revealed that RAF1 membrane abundance is controlled most prominently by association and dissociation rates from RAS-GTP and by RAS-GTP concentration. The model further suggested that the relatively protracted activation of the RAF-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 module, in comparison with RAF1 membrane localization, may involve multiple rounds of cytosolicmore »
Osella, Domenico (Ed.)Tetrapeptides containing a Cys-Gly-Cys motif and a propensity to adopt a reverse-turn structure were synthesized to evaluate how O-, N-, H-, and aromatic π donor groups might contribute to mercury(II) complex formation. Tetrapeptides Xaa-Cys-Gly-Cys, where Xaa is glycine, glutamate, histidine, or tryptophan, were prepared and reacted with mercury(II) chloride. Their complexation with mercury(II) was studied by spectroscopic methods and computational modeling. UV-vis studies confirmed that mercury(II) binds to the cysteinyl thiolates as indicated by characteristic ligand-to-metal-charge-transfer transitions for bisthiolated S-Hg-S complexes, which correspond to 1 : 1 mercury-peptide complex formation. ESI-MS data also showed dominant 1 : 1 mercury-peptide adducts that are consistent with double deprotonations from the cysteinyl thiols to form thiolates. These complexes exhibited a strong positive circular dichroism band at 210 nm and a negative band at 193 nm, indicating that these peptides adopted a β-turn structure after binding mercury(II). Theoretical studies confirmed that optimized 1 : 1 mercury-peptide complexes adopt β-turns stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonds. These optimized structures also illustrate how specific N-terminal side-chain donor groups can assume intramolecular interactions and contribute to complex stability. Fluorescence quenching results provided supporting data that the indole donor group could interact with the coordinated mercury. The results from this study indicate that N-terminal side-chain residues containingmore »