skip to main content

Title: Methodologies to mitigate wind-induced vibration of tall buildings: A state-of-the-art review
This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and –practice on various methodologies developed to control the wind-induced vibration of tall buildings. Tall buildings experience wind-induced vibration in the along- and across-wind directions depending on the wind direction, building shape, height, and structural properties. It is possible to control the wind response of buildings through passive, active, and semi-active systems. Damping systems, which are widely used to reduce the structural vibrations, are reviewed, and their performance in alleviating the building vibration is discussed. It was found that the application of conventional dampers needs to be reassessed to ensure their efficiency in dissipating the energy, especially caused by wind loads. Specific attention has been given to the aerodynamic modification of building shapes considering their effectiveness and high popularity within the wind engineering community. A comprehensive review of the existing wind tunnel experiment and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) studies are conducted here to present the past and recent achievements on the response mitigation of tall buildings. A comparative study on the performance of different systems has been provided that can provide a commencing point for future studies. The existing challenges and their solutions are explained, and suggestions for future studies are proposed. It is expected more » that the information provided in this paper will facilitate further research in the area of wind-induced vibration mitigation approaches of tall buildings. « less
Award ID(s):
1827774 1826356
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Journal of building engineering
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Loss of operation or devastating damage to buildings and industrial structures, as well as equipment housed in them, has been observed due to earthquake-induced vibrations. A common source of operational downtime is due to the performance reduction of vital equipment, which are sensitive to the total transmitted acceleration. A well-known method of protecting such equipment is seismic isolation of the equipment itself (or a group of equipment), as opposed to the entire structure due to the lower cost of implementation. The first objective of this dissertation is assessing a rolling isolation system (RIS) based on existing design guidelines for telecommunications equipment. A discrepancy is observed between the required response spectrum (RRS) and the one and only accelerogram recommended in the guideline. Several filters are developed to generate synthetic accelerograms that are compatible with the RRS. The generated accelerograms are used for probabilistic assessment of a RIS that is acceptable per the guideline. This assessment reveals large failure probability due to displacement demands in excess of the displacement capacity of the RIS. When the displacement demands on an isolation system are in excess of its capacity, impacts result in spikes in transmitted acceleration. Therefore, the second objective of this dissertation ismore »to design impact prevention/mitigation mechanisms. A dual-mode system is proposed where the behavior changes when the displacement exceeds a predefined threshold. A new piecewise optimal control approach is developed and applied to find the best possible mechanism for the region beyond the threshold. By utilizing the designed curves obtained from the proposed optimal control procedure, a Kelvin-Voigt device is tuned for illustrative purposes. On the other hand, the preference for protecting equipment decreases as the earthquake intensity increases. In extreme seismic loading, the response mitigation of the primary structure (i.e., life safety and collapse prevention) is of greater concern than protecting isolated equipment. Therefore, the third objective of this dissertation is to develop an innovative dual-mode system that can behave as equipment isolation under low to moderate seismic loading and passively transition to behave as a vibration absorber for the primary structure under extreme seismic loading. To reduce the computational cost of simulating a large linear elastic structure with nonlinear attachments (i.e., equipment isolation with cubic hardening nonlinearity), a reduced order modeling method is introduced that can capture the behavior of such nonlinear coupled systems. The method is applied to study the feasibility of dual-mode vibration isolation/absorber. To this end, nonlinear transmissibility curves for the roof displacement and isolated mass total acceleration are developed from the steady-state responses of dual-mode systems using the harmonic balanced method. The final objective of this dissertation is to extend the reduced order modeling method developed for linear elastic structure with nonlinear attachment to inelastic structures (without attachments). The new inelastic model condensation (IMC) method uses the modal properties of the full structural model (in the elastic range) to construct a linear reduced order model in conjunction with a hysteresis model to capture the hysteretic inter-story restoring forces. The parameters of these hysteretic forces are easily tuned, in order to fit the inelastic behavior of the condensed structure to that of the full model under a variety of simple loading scenarios. The fidelity of structural models condensed in this way is demonstrated via simulation for different ground motion intensities on three different building structures with various heights. The simplicity, accuracy, and efficiency of this approach could significantly alleviate the computational burden of performance-based earthquake engineering.« less
  2. Blass, Hans (Ed.)
    Wood buildings in North American has been predominantly constructed using light-framed wood systems since early 1900’s, with only limited exception of heavy timber construction in some non-residential applications. This situation is likely to change in the future with the growing acceptance of mass timber construction in the region. In fact, a number of mass timber buildings have been constructed in recent years in the U.S. and Canada, including low- to mid-rise mixed-use buildings (e.g. UMass Student Center, T3 building) and tall towers (e.g. Brocks Commons at UBC). Most of these buildings utilized cross laminated timber (CLT) or nail laminated timber (NLT) floors and heavy timber framing systems to support gravity loads, and a non-wood lateral system such as concrete shear walls or a braced steel frame to resist wind and seismic loads. Although CLT material and glulam products have been recognized in the U.S. and Canada (IBC (2018) and NBCC (2015), there is currently no mass timber lateral systems in the U.S. and only one system (platform style panelized CLT shear wall) in Canada that is currently recognized by the building codes. As a result, special design procedures and review/approval processes must be followed for any building intended to usemore »a mass timber lateral system. There is a need to promote codification of mass timber lateral systems in order to help further develop mass timber building market in North American. At the time of this paper, there has been an on-going effort to devel-op seismic design parameters for panelized CLT shear walls in the U.S. (ref) following the FEMA P695 procedure for platform construction. The other lateral system that at-tracted significant attention and research resources is post-tensioned CLT rocking wall system, which has the potential to be applicable to balloon framed low-rise to tall wood buildings. This paper will focus on recent research development on CLT rocking wall system in the U.S. and the effort to develop a seismic design procedure for this system for inclusion in the NDS Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic (SPDWS)(2008). While the expensive and time consuming process of the FEMA P695 process would provide the ability to use the equivalent lateral force method for design purposes, this path is not part of the discussion included here.« less
  3. With global urbanization trends, the demands for tall residential and mixed-use buildings in the range of 8~20 stories are increasing. One new structural system in this height range are tall wood buildings which have been built in select locations around the world using a relatively new heavy timber structural material known as cross laminated timber (CLT). With its relatively light weight, there is consensus amongst the global wood seismic research and practitioner community that tall wood buildings have a substantial potential to become a key solution to building future seismically resilient cities. This paper introduces the NHERI Tallwood Project recentely funded by the U.S. National Science Fundation to develop and validate a seismic design methodology for tall wood buildings that incorporates high-performance structural and nonstructural systems and can quantitatively account for building resilience. This will be accomplished through a series of research tasks planned over a 4-year period. These tasks will include mechanistic modeling of tall wood buildings with several variants of post-tensioned rocking CLT wall systems, fragility modeling of structural and non-structural building components that affect resilience, full-scale biaxial testing of building sub-assembly systems, development of a resilience-based seismic design (RBSD) methodology, and finally a series of full-scale shakingmore »table tests of a 10-story CLT building specimen to validate the proposed design. The project will deliver a new tall building type capable of transforming the urban building landscape by addressing urbanization demand while enhancing resilience and sustainability.« less
  4. With the recent discoveries and engineering solutions emerging in nanomaterials and nanostructures, independent band modulation of solar radiation on building envelopes, including glazing systems, has become increasingly viable as a potential means of improving building energy savings and indoor visual comfort. However, when it comes to the prediction of these new materials’ potential energy performance in buildings, most studies utilize a simple solar irradiance (e.g., global horizontal solar irradiance, direct beam solar irradiance) or a rough estimation of solar infrared (e.g., 50% solar irradiance) as input, which may cause significant errors. Consequently, there is a pressing need for reliable performance estimations of the solar infrared control and response at the building’s scale. To assess this, we need a solar spectral irradiance model, or at least a wideband (visible or infrared) solar irradiance model, as input. To develop this new type of model, one needs to understand the modeling-related key elements, including available solar spectral irradiance datasets, data collection methods, and modeling techniques. As such, this paper reviews the current major measurement methods and tools used in collecting solar spectral irradiance data with a focus on the solar infrared region, identifies the available related resources and datasets that particularly encompass themore »solar spectral irradiance data with a sufficient wavelength range, and studies existing solar irradiation modeling techniques for building simulations. These investigations will then form the background and backbone for a study scheme of solar infrared radiation modeling and indicate future research paths and opportunities.« less
  5. Acoustic/elastic metamaterials that rely on engineered microstructures instead of chemical composition enable a rich variety of extraordinary effective properties that are suited for various applications including vibration/noise isolation, high-resolution medical imaging, and energy harvesting and mitigation. However, the static nature of these elastic wave guides limits their potential for active elastic-wave guiding, as microstructure transformation remains a challenge to effectively apply in traditional elastic metamaterials due to the interplay of polarization and structural sensitivity. Here, a tunable, locally resonant structural waveguide is proposed and demonstrated for active vibration bandgap switching and elastic-wave manipulation between 1000–4000 Hz based on 3D printed building blocks of zinc-neutralized poly(ethylene- co -methacrylic acid) ionomer (Surlyn 9910). The ionomer exhibits shape memory behavior to enable rearrangement into new shape patterns through application of thermal stimuli that tunes mechanical performance in both space and time dimensions (4D metamaterial). The thermally induced shape-reorganization is programed to flip a series of frequency bands from passbands to bandgaps and vice versa . The continuously switched bandwidth can exceed 500 Hz. Consequently, altering the bandgap from “on” to “off” produces programmable elastic-wave propagation paths to achieve active wave guiding phenomena. An anisotropic cantilever-in-mass model is demonstrated to predict the self-adaptive dynamicmore »responses of the printed structures with good agreement between the analytical work and experimental results. The tunable metamaterial-based waveguides illustrate the potential of 4D printed shape memory polymers in the designing and manufacturing of intelligent devices for elastic-wave control and vibration isolation.« less