- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Proceedings of WWW
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 2066 to 2077
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Both liberals and conservatives believe that using facts in political discussions helps to foster mutual respect, but 15 studies—across multiple methodologies and issues—show that these beliefs are mistaken. Political opponents respect moral beliefs more when they are supported by personal experiences, not facts. The respect-inducing power of personal experiences is revealed by survey studies across various political topics, a field study of conversations about guns, an analysis of YouTube comments from abortion opinion videos, and an archival analysis of 137 interview transcripts from Fox News and CNN. The personal experiences most likely to encourage respect from opponents are issue-relevant and involve harm. Mediation analyses reveal that these harm-related personal experiences increase respect by increasing perceptions of rationality: everyone can appreciate that avoiding harm is rational, even in people who hold different beliefs about guns, taxes, immigration, and the environment. Studies show that people believe in the truth of both facts and personal experiences in nonmoral disagreement; however, in moral disagreements, subjective experiences seem truer (i.e., are doubted less) than objective facts. These results provide a concrete demonstration of how to bridge moral divides while also revealing how our intuitions can lead us astray. Stretching back to the Enlightenment, philosophers andmore »
Minimal effects from injunctive norm and contentiousness treatments on COVID-19 vaccine intentions: evidence from 3 countries
Does information about how other people feel about COVID-19 vaccination affect immunization intentions? We conducted preregistered survey experiments in Great Britain (5,456 respondents across 3 survey waves from September 2020 to February 2021), Canada (1,315 respondents in February 2021), and the state of New Hampshire in the United States (1,315 respondents in January 2021). The experiments examine the effects of providing accurate public opinion information to people about either public support for COVID-19 vaccination (an injunctive norm) or public beliefs that the issue is contentious. Across all 3 countries, exposure to this information had minimal effects on vaccination intentions even among people who previously held inaccurate beliefs about support for COVID-19 vaccination or its perceived contentiousness. These results suggest that providing information on public opinion about COVID vaccination has limited additional effect on people’s behavioral intentions when public discussion of vaccine uptake and intentions is highly salient.
Online forums are an integral part of modern day courses, but motivating students to participate in educationally beneficial discussions can be challenging. Our proposed solution is to initialize (or “seed”) a new course forum with comments from past instances of the same course that are intended to trigger discussion that is beneficial to learning. In this work, we develop methods for selecting high-quality seeds and evaluate their impact over one course instance of a 186-student biology class. We designed a scale for measuring the “seeding suitability” score of a given thread (an opening comment and its ensuing discussion). We then constructed a supervised machine learning (ML) model for predicting the seeding suitability score of a given thread. This model was evaluated in two ways: first, by comparing its performance to the expert opinion of the course instructors on test/holdout data; and second, by embedding it in a live course, where it was actively used to facilitate seeding by the course instructors. For each reading assignment in the course, we presented a ranked list of seeding recommendations to the course instructors, who could review the list and filter out seeds with inconsistent or malformed content. We then ran a randomized controlledmore »
Anonymity can enable both healthy online interactions like support-seeking and toxic behaviors like hate speech. How do online service providers balance these threats and opportunities? This two-part qualitative study examines the challenges perceived by open collaboration service providers in allowing anonymous contributions to their projects. We interviewed eleven people familiar with organizational decisions related to privacy and security at five open collaboration projects and followed up with an analysis of public discussions about anonymous contribution to Wikipedia. We contrast our findings with prior work on threats perceived by project volunteers and explore misalignment between policies aiming to serve contributors and the privacy practices of contributors themselves.
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