skip to main content

Title: Orthogonal deposition of Au on different facets of Ag cuboctahedra for the fabrication of nanoboxes with complementary surfaces
We report the fabrication of Ag–Au cuboctahedral nanoboxes enclosed by {100} and {111} facets, respectively, through the orthogonal deposition of Au on two different facets of Ag cuboctahedra. Specifically, we titrate aqueous HAuCl 4 into an aqueous mixture containing Ag cuboctahedra, ascorbic acid, and NaOH (under basic conditions), in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), respectively. In the case of PVP, the oxidation of Ag was initiated from the {111} facets of the cuboctahedra through the galvanic replacement reaction between Au( iii ) and Ag, accompanied by the deposition of Au onto the {100} facets. Because the dissolved Ag( i ) ions could react with NaOH to form Ag 2 O on the {111} facets and thus terminate the galvanic reaction, the Au( iii ) ions would be further reduced by the ascorbate monoanion (HAsc − ) to generate Au atoms for their continuing deposition on the {100} facets, converting Ag cuboctahedra to Ag@Au {100} cuboctahedra. Upon the etching of Ag from the core, we obtained Ag–Au cuboctahedral nanoboxes enclosed by {100} facets. In contrast, when CTAC was present, the oxidation of Ag through a galvanic reaction could continuously proceed on {100} facets as the dissolved Ag( more » i ) ions would react with the excessive amount of Cl − ions derived from CTAC to produce soluble AgCl 2 − ions rather than insoluble Ag 2 O. As a result, the dissolved Ag( i ) and Au( iii ) ions would be co-reduced by HAsc − for the generation of Ag and Au atoms, followed by their co-deposition onto {111} facets for the generation of Ag@Au {111} concave cuboctahedra. After the removal of Ag from the core by etching, we obtained Ag–Au {111} cuboctahedral nanoboxes enclosed by {111} facets. Both samples of cuboctahedral nanoboxes exhibited strong optical absorption in the infrared region. Interestingly, the cuboctahedral nanoboxes enclosed by {111} facets showed significantly enhanced catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol by NaBH 4 relative to their counterparts encased by {100} facets. « less
; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
372 to 379
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. We report a facile route to the synthesis of Ag@Au–Pt trimetallic nanocubes in which the Ag, Au, and Pt atoms are exposed at the corners, side faces, and edges, respectively. Our success relies on the use of Ag@Au nanocubes, with Ag 2 O patches at the corners and Au on the side faces and edges, as seeds for the site-selective deposition of Pt on the edges only in a reaction system containing ascorbic acid (H 2 Asc) and poly(vinylpyrrolidone). At an initial pH of 3.2, H 2 Asc can dissolve the Ag 2 O patches, exposing the Ag atoms at the corners of a nanocube. Upon the injection of the H 2 PtCl 6 precursor, the Pt atoms derived from the reduction by both H 2 Asc and Ag are preferentially deposited on the edges, leading to the formation of Ag@Au–Pt trimetallic nanocubes. We demonstrate the use of 2,6-dimethylphenyl isocyanide as a molecular probe to confirm and monitor the deposition of Pt atoms on the edges of nanocubes through surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We further explore the use of these bifunctional trimetallic nanoparticles with integrated plasmonic and catalytic properties for in situ SERS monitoring the reduction of 4-nitrothiophenol by NaBHmore »4 . Upon the removal of Ag via H 2 O 2 etching, the Ag@Au–Pt nanocubes evolve into trimetallic nanoboxes with a wall thickness of about 2 nm and well-defined openings at the corners. The trimetallic nanoboxes embrace plasmon resonance peaks in the near-infrared region with potential in biomedical applications.« less
  2. We report the fabrication of Ag–Pd concave nanocrystals by introducing the Pd( ii ) precursor into an aqueous suspension of Ag nanocubes in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) under ambient conditions. Different from the previously reported work that involved the oxidation of Ag and deposition of Pd at random sites on the surface for the generation of Ag–Pd hollow nanocrystals, we demonstrate that the Cl − ions from CTAC can confine the oxidation of Ag atoms to the side faces of a nanocube while the resultant Pd atoms are deposited on the edges in an orthogonal manner. By controlling the amount of the Pd( ii ) precursor involved in a synthesis, we can transform Ag nanocubes into Ag–Pd nanocrystals with different degrees of concaveness for the side faces and controllable Pd contents. We characterize the outermost layer of concave surfaces for the as-obtained Ag–Pd nanocrystals by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) through the use of an isocyanide probe. This facile approach would enable the fabrication of Ag-based concave nanocrystals for applications in plasmonics and catalysis.
  3. Iron (Fe) is ubiquitous in nature and found as Fe II or Fe III in minerals or as dissolved ions Fe 2+ or Fe 3+ in aqueous systems. The interactions of soluble Fe have important implications for fresh water and marine biogeochemical cycles, which have impacts on global terrestrial and atmospheric environments. Upon dissolution of Fe III into natural aquatic systems, organic carboxylic acids efficiently chelate Fe III to form [Fe III –carboxylate] 2+ complexes that undergo a wide range of photochemistry-induced radical reactions. The chemical composition and photochemical transformations of these mixtures are largely unknown, making it challenging to estimate their environmental impact. To investigate the photochemical process of Fe III –carboxylates at the molecular level, we conduct a comprehensive experimental study employing UV-visible spectroscopy, liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array and high-resolution mass spectrometry detection, and oil immersion flow microscopy. In this study, aqueous solutions of Fe III –citrate were photolyzed under 365 nm light in an experimental setup with an apparent quantum yield of ( φ ) ∼0.02, followed by chemical analyses of reacted mixtures withdrawn at increment time intervals of the experiment. The apparent photochemical reaction kinetics of Fe 3+ –citrates (aq) were expressed as twomore »generalized consecutive reactions of with the experimental rate constants of j 1 ∼ 0.12 min −1 and j 2 ∼ 0.05 min −1 , respectively. Molecular characterization results indicate that R and I consist of both water-soluble organic and Fe–organic species, while P compounds are a mixture of water-soluble and colloidal materials. The latter were identified as Fe–carbonaceous colloids formed at long photolysis times. The carbonaceous content of these colloids was identified as unsaturated organic species with low oxygen content and carbon with a reduced oxidation state, indicative of their plausible radical recombination mechanism under oxygen-deprived conditions typical for the extensively photolyzed mixtures. Based on the molecular characterization results, we discuss the comprehensive reaction mechanism of Fe III –citrate photochemistry and report on the formation of previously unexplored colloidal reaction products, which may contribute to atmospheric and terrestrial light-absorbing materials in aquatic environments.« less
  4. null (Ed.)
    Among high-valence metal oxides, LiCoO 2 and related materials are of environmental importance because of the rapidly increasing use of these materials as cathodes in lithium ion batteries. Understanding the impact of these materials on aqueous environments relies on understanding their redox chemistry because Co release is dependent on oxidation state. Despite the critical role that redox chemistry plays in cellular homeostasis, the influence of specific biologically relevant electron transporters such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and glutathione (GSH) on the transformation of engineered nanoparticles has not been widely considered previously. Here we report an investigation of the interaction of LiCoO 2 nanoparticles with NADH and GSH. Measurements of Co release using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) show that exposing LiCoO 2 nanoparticles to either NADH or GSH increases solubilization of cobalt, while corresponding spectroscopic measurements show that NADH is concurrently oxidized to NAD + . To demonstrate that these effects are a consequence the high-valence Co(III) inLiCoO 2 nanoparticles, we performed control experiments using Co(II)-containing Co(OH) 2 and LiCoPO 4 , and dissolved Co 2+ /Li + ions. Additional experiments using molecules of similar structure to NADH and GSH, but that are not reducing agents, confirm that these transformationsmore »are driven by redox reactions and not by chelation effects. Our data show that interaction of LiCoO 2 with NADH and GSH induces release Co 2+ ions and alters the redox state of these biologically important transporters. Observation of NADH binding to LiCoO 2 using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggests a surface catalyzed reaction. The reciprocal reduction of LiCoO 2 to enable release of Co 2+ and corresponding oxidation of NADH and GSH as model redox-active biomolecules has implications for understanding the biological impacts of high-valence metal oxide nanomaterials.« less
  5. Biomass is abundant, inexpensive and renewable, therefore, it is highly expected to play a significant role in our future energy and chemical landscapes. The US DOE has identified furanic compounds (furfural and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF)) as the top platform building-block chemicals that can be readily derived from biomass sources [1]. Electrocatalytic conversion of these furanic compounds is an emerging route for the sustainable production of valuable chemicals [2, 3]. In my presentation, I will first present our recent mechanistic study of electrochemical reduction of furfural through a combination of voltammetry, preparative electrolysis, thiol-electrode modifications, and kinetic isotope studies [4]. It is demonstrated that two distinct mechanisms are operable on metallic Cu electrodes in acidic electrolytes: (i) electrocatalytic hydrogenation (ECH) and (ii) direct electroreduction. The contributions of each mechanism to the observed product distribution are clarified by evaluating the requirement for direct chemical interactions with the electrode surface and the role of adsorbed hydrogen. Further analysis reveals that hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis products are generated by parallel ECH pathways. Understanding the underlying mechanisms enables the manipulation of furfural reduction by rationally tuning the electrode potential, electrolyte pH, and furfural concentration to promote selective formation of important bio-based polymer precursors and fuels. Next, Imore »will present electrocatalytic conversion of HMF to two biobased monomers in an H-type electrochemical cell [5]. HMF reduction (hydrogenation) to 2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan (BHMF) was achieved under mild electrolyte conditions and ambient temperature using a Ag/C cathode. Meanwhile, HMF oxidation to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) with ~100% efficiency was facilitated under the same conditions by a homogeneous nitroxyl radical redox mediator, together with an inexpensive carbon felt anode. The selectivity and efficiency for Ag-catalyzed BHMF formation were sensitive to cathode potential, owing to competition from HMF hydrodimerization reactions and water reduction (hydrogen evolution). Moreover, the carbon support of Ag/C was active for HMF reduction and contributed to undesired dimer/oligomer formation at strongly cathodic potentials. As a result, high BHMF selectivity and efficiency were only achieved within a narrow potential range near –1.3 V. Fortunately, the selectivity of redox-mediated HMF oxidation was insensitive to anode potential, thus allowing HMF hydrogenation and oxidation half reactions to be performed together in a single cathode-potential-controlled cell. Electrocatalytic HMF conversion in a paired cell achieved high molar yields of BHMF and FDCA, and nearly doubled electron efficiency compared to the unpaired cell. Finally, I will briefly introduce our recent work on the development of a three-electrode flow cell with an oxide-derived Ag (OD-Ag) cathode and catbon felt anode for paring elecatalytic oxidation and reduction of HMF. The flow cell has a remarkable cell voltage reduction from ~7.5 V to ~2.0 V by transferring the electrolysis from the H-type cell to the flow cell [6]. This represents a more than fourfold increase in the energy efficiency at the 10 mA operation. A combined faradaic efficiency of 163% was obtained to BHMF and FDCA. Alternatively, the anodic hydrogen oxidation reaction on platinum further reduced the cell voltage to only ~0.85 V at 10 mA operation. These paired processes have shown potential for integrating renewable electricity and carbon for distributed chemical manufacturing in the future.« less