skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Friday, April 12 until 2:00 AM ET on Saturday, April 13 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


Title: Adaptive photonic RF spectral shaper

The radio frequency spectral shaper is an essential component in emerging multi-service mobile communications, multiband satellite and radar systems, and future 5G/6G radio frequency systems for equalizing spectral unevenness, removing out-of-band noise and interference, and manipulating multi-band signal simultaneously. While it is easy to achieve simple spectral functions using either conventional microwave photonic filters or the optical spectrum to microwave spectra mapping techniques, it is challenging to enable complex spectral shaping functions over tens of GHz bandwidth as well as to achieve point-by-point shaping capability to fulfill the needs in dynamic wireless communications. In this paper, we proposed and demonstrated a novel spectral shaping system, which utilizes a two-section algorithm to automatically decompose the target RF response into a series of Gaussian functions and to reconstruct the desired RF response by microwave photonic techniques. The devised spectral shaping system is capable of manipulating the spectral function in various bands (S, C, and X) simultaneously with step resolution of as fine as tens of MHz. The resolution limitation in optical spectral processing is mitigated using the discrete convolution technique. Over 10 dynamic and independently adjustable spectral control points are experimentally achieved based on the proposed spectral shaper.

 
more » « less
Award ID(s):
1653525 1917043
NSF-PAR ID:
10181926
Author(s) / Creator(s):
;
Publisher / Repository:
Optical Society of America
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Optics Express
Volume:
28
Issue:
17
ISSN:
1094-4087; OPEXFF
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Article No. 24789
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. BACKGROUND Electromagnetic (EM) waves underpin modern society in profound ways. They are used to carry information, enabling broadcast radio and television, mobile telecommunications, and ubiquitous access to data networks through Wi-Fi and form the backbone of our modern broadband internet through optical fibers. In fundamental physics, EM waves serve as an invaluable tool to probe objects from cosmic to atomic scales. For example, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and atomic clocks, which are some of the most precise human-made instruments in the world, rely on EM waves to reach unprecedented accuracies. This has motivated decades of research to develop coherent EM sources over broad spectral ranges with impressive results: Frequencies in the range of tens of gigahertz (radio and microwave regimes) can readily be generated by electronic oscillators. Resonant tunneling diodes enable the generation of millimeter (mm) and terahertz (THz) waves, which span from tens of gigahertz to a few terahertz. At even higher frequencies, up to the petahertz level, which are usually defined as optical frequencies, coherent waves can be generated by solid-state and gas lasers. However, these approaches often suffer from narrow spectral bandwidths, because they usually rely on well-defined energy states of specific materials, which results in a rather limited spectral coverage. To overcome this limitation, nonlinear frequency-mixing strategies have been developed. These approaches shift the complexity from the EM source to nonresonant-based material effects. Particularly in the optical regime, a wealth of materials exist that support effects that are suitable for frequency mixing. Over the past two decades, the idea of manipulating these materials to form guiding structures (waveguides) has provided improvements in efficiency, miniaturization, and production scale and cost and has been widely implemented for diverse applications. ADVANCES Lithium niobate, a crystal that was first grown in 1949, is a particularly attractive photonic material for frequency mixing because of its favorable material properties. Bulk lithium niobate crystals and weakly confining waveguides have been used for decades for accessing different parts of the EM spectrum, from gigahertz to petahertz frequencies. Now, this material is experiencing renewed interest owing to the commercial availability of thin-film lithium niobate (TFLN). This integrated photonic material platform enables tight mode confinement, which results in frequency-mixing efficiency improvements by orders of magnitude while at the same time offering additional degrees of freedom for engineering the optical properties by using approaches such as dispersion engineering. Importantly, the large refractive index contrast of TFLN enables, for the first time, the realization of lithium niobate–based photonic integrated circuits on a wafer scale. OUTLOOK The broad spectral coverage, ultralow power requirements, and flexibilities of lithium niobate photonics in EM wave generation provides a large toolset to explore new device functionalities. Furthermore, the adoption of lithium niobate–integrated photonics in foundries is a promising approach to miniaturize essential bench-top optical systems using wafer scale production. Heterogeneous integration of active materials with lithium niobate has the potential to create integrated photonic circuits with rich functionalities. Applications such as high-speed communications, scalable quantum computing, artificial intelligence and neuromorphic computing, and compact optical clocks for satellites and precision sensing are expected to particularly benefit from these advances and provide a wealth of opportunities for commercial exploration. Also, bulk crystals and weakly confining waveguides in lithium niobate are expected to keep playing a crucial role in the near future because of their advantages in high-power and loss-sensitive quantum optics applications. As such, lithium niobate photonics holds great promise for unlocking the EM spectrum and reshaping information technologies for our society in the future. Lithium niobate spectral coverage. The EM spectral range and processes for generating EM frequencies when using lithium niobate (LN) for frequency mixing. AO, acousto-optic; AOM, acousto-optic modulation; χ (2) , second-order nonlinearity; χ (3) , third-order nonlinearity; EO, electro-optic; EOM, electro-optic modulation; HHG, high-harmonic generation; IR, infrared; OFC, optical frequency comb; OPO, optical paramedic oscillator; OR, optical rectification; SCG, supercontinuum generation; SHG, second-harmonic generation; UV, ultraviolet. 
    more » « less
  2. Microwave communications have witnessed an incipient proliferation of multi-antenna and opportunistic technologies in the wake of an ever-growing demand for spectrum resources, while facing increasingly difficult network management over widespread channel interference and heterogeneous wireless broadcasting. Radio frequency (RF) blind source separation (BSS) is a powerful technique for demixing mixtures of unknown signals with minimal assumptions, but relies on frequency dependent RF electronics and prior knowledge of the target frequency band. We propose photonic BSS with unparalleled frequency agility supported by the tremendous bandwidths of photonic channels and devices. Specifically, our approach adopts an RF photonic front-end to process RF signals at various frequency bands within the same array of integrated microring resonators, and implements a novel two-step photonic BSS pipeline to reconstruct source identities from the reduced dimensional statistics of front-end output. We verify the feasibility and robustness of our approach by performing the first proof-of-concept photonic BSS experiments on mixed-over-the-air RF signals across multiple frequency bands. The proposed technique lays the groundwork for further research in interference cancellation, radio communications, and photonic information processing.

     
    more » « less
  3. Radio-frequency (RF) waveform synthesis has broad applications in ultrawide-bandwidth wireless communications, radar systems, and electronic testing. Photonic-based approaches offer key advantages in bandwidth and phase noise thanks to the ultrahigh optical carrier frequency. In this work, we demonstrate Fourier synthesis arbitrary waveform generation (AWG) with integrated optical microresonator solitons. The RF temporal waveform is synthesized through line-by-line amplitude and phase shaping of an optical soliton microcomb, which is down-converted to the RF domain through dual-comb optical coherent sampling. A variety of RF waveforms with tunable repetition cycles are shown in our demonstration. Our approach provides not only the possibility of precise Fourier synthesis at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies, but also a viable path to fully integrated photonic-based RF AWG on a chip.

     
    more » « less
  4. Millimeter-wave (mmWave) communications and cell densification are the key techniques for the future evolution of cellular systems beyond 5G. Although the current mmWave radio designs are focused on hybrid digital and analog receiver array architectures, the fully digital architecture is an appealing option due to its flexibility and support for multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO). In order to achieve reasonable power consumption and hardware cost, the specifications of analog circuits are expected to be compromised, including the resolution of analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and the linearity of radio-frequency (RF) front end. Although the state-of-the-art studies focus on the ADC, the nonlinearity can also lead to severe system performance degradation when strong input signals introduce inter-modulation distortion (IMD). The impact of RF nonlinearity becomes more severe with densely deployed mmWave cells since signal sources closer to the receiver array are more likely to occur. In this work, we design and analyze the digital IMD compensation algorithm, and study the relaxation of the required linearity in the RF-chain. We propose novel algorithms that jointly process digitized samples to recover amplifier saturation, and relies on beam space operation which reduces the computational complexity as compared to per-antenna IMD compensation. 
    more » « less
  5. null (Ed.)
    Abstract A class of multi-band planar diplexer with sub-sets of frequency-contiguous transmission bands is reported. Such a radio frequency (RF) device is suitable for lightweight high-frequency receivers aimed at multi-band/multi-purpose mobile satellite communications systems. It consists of two channelizing filters, each of them being made up of the in-series cascade connection of replicas of a constituent multi-passband/multi-embedded-stopband filtering stage. This building filtering stage defines a multi-passband transfer function for each channel, in which each main transmission band is split into various sub-passbands by the multi-stopband part. In this manner, each split passband gives rise to several sub-passbands that are imbricated with their counterpart ones of the other channel. The theoretical RF operational principles of the proposed multi-band diplexer approach with sub-sets of imbricated passbands are detailed by means of a coupling–routing–diagram formalism. Besides, the generation of additional transmission zeros in each channelizing filter for higher-selectivity realizations by exploiting cross-coupling techniques into it is also detailed. Furthermore, for experimental demonstration purposes, a microstrip proof-of-concept prototype of second-order octo-band diplexer in the frequency range of 1.5–2.5 GHz that consists of two quad-band channelizing filters with pairs of imbricated passbands is developed and characterized. 
    more » « less