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Title: Combining Experimental Evolution and Genomics to Understand How Seed Beetles Adapt to a Marginal Host Plant
Genes that affect adaptive traits have been identified, but our knowledge of the genetic basis of adaptation in a more general sense (across multiple traits) remains limited. We combined population-genomic analyses of evolve-and-resequence experiments, genome-wide association mapping of performance traits, and analyses of gene expression to fill this knowledge gap and shed light on the genomics of adaptation to a marginal host (lentil) by the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Using population-genomic approaches, we detected modest parallelism in allele frequency change across replicate lines during adaptation to lentil. Mapping populations derived from each lentil-adapted line revealed a polygenic basis for two host-specific performance traits (weight and development time), which had low to modest heritabilities. We found less evidence of parallelism in genotype-phenotype associations across these lines than in allele frequency changes during the experiments. Differential gene expression caused by differences in recent evolutionary history exceeded that caused by immediate rearing host. Together, the three genomic datasets suggest that genes affecting traits other than weight and development time are likely to be the main causes of parallel evolution and that detoxification genes (especially cytochrome P450s and beta-glucosidase) could be especially important for colonization of lentil by C. maculatus.
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