Biodegradable Mg-Sc-Sr Alloy Improves Osteogenesis and Angiogenesis to Accelerate Bone Defect Restoration
Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys are considered to be biodegradable metallic biomaterials for potential orthopedic implants. While the osteogenic properties of Mg alloys have been widely studied, few reports focused on developing a bifunctional Mg implant with osteogenic and angiogenic properties. Herein, a Mg-Sc-Sr alloy was developed, and this alloy’s angiogenesis and osteogenesis effects were evaluated in vitro for the first time. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and metallography images were used to evaluate the microstructure of the developed Mg-Sc-Sr alloy. Human umbilical vein/vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to evaluate the angiogenic character of the prepared Mg-Sc-Sr alloy. A mix of human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBM-MSCs) and HUVEC cell cultures were used to assess the osteogenesis-stimulating effect of Mg-Sc-Sr alloy through alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Von Kossa staining. Higher ALP activity and the number of calcified nodules (27% increase) were obtained for the Mg-Sc-Sr-treated groups compared to Mg-treated groups. In addition, higher VEGF expression (45.5% increase), tube length (80.8% increase), and number of meshes (37.9% increase) were observed. The Mg-Sc-Sr alloy showed significantly higher angiogenesis and osteogenic differentiation than pure Mg and the control group, suggesting such a composition as a promising candidate in bone implants.