skip to main content

Title: Demonstration of dynamic thermal compensation for parametric instability suppression in Advanced LIGO

Advanced LIGO and other ground-based interferometric gravitational-wave detectors use high laser power to minimize shot noise and suspended optics to reduce seismic noise coupling. This can result in an opto-mechanical coupling which can become unstable and saturate the interferometer control systems. The severity of these parametric instabilities scales with circulating laser power and first hindered LIGO operations in 2014. Static thermal tuning and active electrostatic damping have previously been used to control parametric instabilities at lower powers but are insufficient as power is increased. Here we report the first demonstration of dynamic thermal compensation to avoid parametric instability in an Advanced LIGO detector. Annular ring heaters that compensate central heating are used to tune the optical mode away from multiple problematic mirror resonance frequencies. We develop a single-cavity approximation model to simulate the optical beat note frequency during the central heating and ring heating transient. An experiment of dynamic ring heater tuning at the LIGO Livingston detector was carried out at 170 kW circulating power and, in agreement with our model, the third order optical beat note is controlled to avoid instability of the 15 and 15.5 kHz mechanical modes. We project that dynamic thermal compensation with ring heater input conditioning can be used in parallel with acoustic mode dampers to control the optical mode transient and avoid parametric instability of these modes up to Advanced LIGO’s design circulating power of 750  kW. The experiment also demonstrates the use of three mode interaction monitoring as a sensor of the cavity geometry, used to maintain theg-factor product tog1g2= 0.829 ± 0.004.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
2012021 1707835
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
IOP Publishing
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Classical and Quantum Gravity
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Article No. 205021
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    High-spectral-purity frequency-agile room-temperature sources in the terahertz spectrum are foundational elements for imaging, sensing, metrology, and communications. Here we present a chip-scale optical parametric oscillator based on an integrated nonlinear microresonator that provides broadly tunable single-frequency and multi-frequency oscillators in the terahertz regime. Through optical-to-terahertz down-conversion using a plasmonic nanoantenna array, coherent terahertz radiation spanning 2.8-octaves is achieved from 330 GHz to 2.3 THz, with ≈20 GHz cavity-mode-limited frequency tuning step and ≈10 MHz intracavity-mode continuous frequency tuning range at each step. By controlling the microresonator intracavity power and pump-resonance detuning, tunable multi-frequency terahertz oscillators are also realized. Furthermore, by stabilizing the microresonator pump power and wavelength, sub-100 Hz linewidth of the terahertz radiation with 10−15residual frequency instability is demonstrated. The room-temperature generation of both single-frequency, frequency-agile terahertz radiation and multi-frequency terahertz oscillators in the chip-scale platform offers unique capabilities in metrology, sensing, imaging and communications.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    The optical and near-ultraviolet (NUV) continuum radiation in M-dwarf flares is thought to be the impulsive response of the lower stellar atmosphere to magnetic energy release and electron acceleration at coronal altitudes. This radiation is sometimes interpreted as evidence of a thermal photospheric spectrum withT≈ 104K. However, calculations show that standard solar flare coronal electron beams lose their energy in a thick target of gas in the upper and middle chromosphere (log10column mass/[g cm−2] ≲ −3). At larger beam injection fluxes, electric fields and instabilities are expected to further inhibit propagation to low altitudes. We show that recent numerical solutions of the time-dependent equations governing the power-law electrons and background coronal plasma (Langmuir and ion-acoustic) waves from Kontar et al. produce order-of-magnitude larger heating rates than those that occur in the deep chromosphere through standard solar flare electron beam power-law distributions. We demonstrate that the redistribution of beam energy aboveE≳ 100 keV in this theory results in a local heating maximum that is similar to a radiative-hydrodynamic model with a large, low-energy cutoff and a hard power-law index. We use this semiempirical forward-modeling approach to produce opaque NUV and optical continua at gas temperaturesT≳ 12,000 K over the deep chromosphere with log10column mass/[g cm−2] of −1.2 to −2.3. These models explain the color temperatures and Balmer jump strengths in high-cadence M-dwarf flare observations, and they clarify the relation among atmospheric, radiation, and optical color temperatures in stellar flares.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    We present a proof of concept for a spectrally selective thermal mid-IR source based on nanopatterned graphene (NPG) with a typical mobility of CVD-grown graphene (up to 3000$$\hbox {cm}^2\,\hbox {V}^{-1}\,\hbox {s}^{-1}$$cm2V-1s-1), ensuring scalability to large areas. For that, we solve the electrostatic problem of a conducting hyperboloid with an elliptical wormhole in the presence of anin-planeelectric field. The localized surface plasmons (LSPs) on the NPG sheet, partially hybridized with graphene phonons and surface phonons of the neighboring materials, allow for the control and tuning of the thermal emission spectrum in the wavelength regime from$$\lambda =3$$λ=3to 12$$\upmu$$μm by adjusting the size of and distance between the circular holes in a hexagonal or square lattice structure. Most importantly, the LSPs along with an optical cavity increase the emittance of graphene from about 2.3% for pristine graphene to 80% for NPG, thereby outperforming state-of-the-art pristine graphene light sources operating in the near-infrared by at least a factor of 100. According to our COMSOL calculations, a maximum emission power per area of$$11\times 10^3$$11×103W/$$\hbox {m}^2$$m2at$$T=2000$$T=2000K for a bias voltage of$$V=23$$V=23V is achieved by controlling the temperature of the hot electrons through the Joule heating. By generalizing Planck’s theory to any grey body and deriving the completely general nonlocal fluctuation-dissipation theorem with nonlocal response of surface plasmons in the random phase approximation, we show that the coherence length of the graphene plasmons and the thermally emitted photons can be as large as 13$$\upmu$$μm and 150$$\upmu$$μm, respectively, providing the opportunity to create phased arrays made of nanoantennas represented by the holes in NPG. The spatial phase variation of the coherence allows for beamsteering of the thermal emission in the range between$$12^\circ$$12and$$80^\circ$$80by tuning the Fermi energy between$$E_F=1.0$$EF=1.0eV and$$E_F=0.25$$EF=0.25eV through the gate voltage. Our analysis of the nonlocal hydrodynamic response leads to the conjecture that the diffusion length and viscosity in graphene are frequency-dependent. Using finite-difference time domain calculations, coupled mode theory, and RPA, we develop the model of a mid-IR light source based on NPG, which will pave the way to graphene-based optical mid-IR communication, mid-IR color displays, mid-IR spectroscopy, and virus detection.

    more » « less
  4. In a passive cavity geometry, there exists a trade-off between resonant enhancement and response time, which is inherently limited by the cavity photon lifetime. We demonstrate frequency-selective, dynamic control of the photon lifetime using a silicon-nitride coupled-ring resonator. The photon lifetime is tuned by controlling an avoided mode crossing using thermo-optic tuning of the cavity resonance with integrated heaters. Using this effect, we achieve fast turn-on/off of aχ<#comment/>(3)degenerate optical parametric oscillator (DOPO) and on-chip true random number generation. Our approach allows us to overcome theQ-limited generation rate of a single-ring-based DOPO and offers a path toward the development of a scalable integrated high-quality entropy source for modern cryptographic systems.

    more » « less
  5. Resonant enhancement of nonlinear photonic processes is critical for the scalability of applications such as long-distance entanglement generation. To implement nonlinear resonant enhancement, multiple resonator modes must be individually tuned onto a precise set of process wavelengths, which requires multiple linearly-independent tuning methods. Using coupled auxiliary resonators to indirectly tune modes in a multi-resonant nonlinear cavity is particularly attractive because it allows the extension of a single physical tuning mechanism, such as thermal tuning, to provide the required independent controls. Here we model and simulate the performance and tradeoffs of a coupled-resonator tuning scheme which uses auxiliary resonators to tune specific modes of a multi-resonant nonlinear process. Our analysis determines the tuning bandwidth for steady-state mode field intensity can significantly exceed the inter-cavity coupling rategif the total quality factor of the auxiliary resonator is higher than the multi-mode main resonator. Consequently, over-coupling a nonlinear resonator mode to improve the maximum efficiency of a frequency conversion process will simultaneously expand the auxiliary resonator tuning bandwidth for that mode, indicating a natural compatibility with this tuning scheme. We apply the model to an existing small-diameter triply-resonant ring resonator design and find that a tuning bandwidth of 136 GHz ≈ 1.1 nm can be attained for a mode in the telecom band while limiting excess scattering losses to a quality factor of 106. Such range would span the distribution of inhomogeneously broadened quantum emitter ensembles as well as resonator fabrication variations, indicating the potential for the auxiliary resonators to enable not only low-loss telecom conversion but also the generation of indistinguishable photons in a quantum network.

    more » « less