skip to main content

Title: Demonstration of dynamic thermal compensation for parametric instability suppression in Advanced LIGO
Abstract

Advanced LIGO and other ground-based interferometric gravitational-wave detectors use high laser power to minimize shot noise and suspended optics to reduce seismic noise coupling. This can result in an opto-mechanical coupling which can become unstable and saturate the interferometer control systems. The severity of these parametric instabilities scales with circulating laser power and first hindered LIGO operations in 2014. Static thermal tuning and active electrostatic damping have previously been used to control parametric instabilities at lower powers but are insufficient as power is increased. Here we report the first demonstration of dynamic thermal compensation to avoid parametric instability in an Advanced LIGO detector. Annular ring heaters that compensate central heating are used to tune the optical mode away from multiple problematic mirror resonance frequencies. We develop a single-cavity approximation model to simulate the optical beat note frequency during the central heating and ring heating transient. An experiment of dynamic ring heater tuning at the LIGO Livingston detector was carried out at 170 kW circulating power and, in agreement with our model, the third order optical beat note is controlled to avoid instability of the 15 and 15.5 kHz mechanical modes. We project that dynamic thermal compensation with ring heater more » input conditioning can be used in parallel with acoustic mode dampers to control the optical mode transient and avoid parametric instability of these modes up to Advanced LIGO’s design circulating power of 750  kW. The experiment also demonstrates the use of three mode interaction monitoring as a sensor of the cavity geometry, used to maintain theg-factor product tog1g2= 0.829 ± 0.004.

« less
Authors:
; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
2012021 1707835
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10195533
Journal Name:
Classical and Quantum Gravity
Volume:
37
Issue:
20
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Article No. 205021
ISSN:
0264-9381
Publisher:
IOP Publishing
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    We present a proof of concept for a spectrally selective thermal mid-IR source based on nanopatterned graphene (NPG) with a typical mobility of CVD-grown graphene (up to 3000$$\hbox {cm}^2\,\hbox {V}^{-1}\,\hbox {s}^{-1}$$cm2V-1s-1), ensuring scalability to large areas. For that, we solve the electrostatic problem of a conducting hyperboloid with an elliptical wormhole in the presence of anin-planeelectric field. The localized surface plasmons (LSPs) on the NPG sheet, partially hybridized with graphene phonons and surface phonons of the neighboring materials, allow for the control and tuning of the thermal emission spectrum in the wavelength regime from$$\lambda =3$$λ=3to 12$$\upmu$$μm by adjusting themore »size of and distance between the circular holes in a hexagonal or square lattice structure. Most importantly, the LSPs along with an optical cavity increase the emittance of graphene from about 2.3% for pristine graphene to 80% for NPG, thereby outperforming state-of-the-art pristine graphene light sources operating in the near-infrared by at least a factor of 100. According to our COMSOL calculations, a maximum emission power per area of$$11\times 10^3$$11×103W/$$\hbox {m}^2$$m2at$$T=2000$$T=2000K for a bias voltage of$$V=23$$V=23V is achieved by controlling the temperature of the hot electrons through the Joule heating. By generalizing Planck’s theory to any grey body and deriving the completely general nonlocal fluctuation-dissipation theorem with nonlocal response of surface plasmons in the random phase approximation, we show that the coherence length of the graphene plasmons and the thermally emitted photons can be as large as 13$$\upmu$$μm and 150$$\upmu$$μm, respectively, providing the opportunity to create phased arrays made of nanoantennas represented by the holes in NPG. The spatial phase variation of the coherence allows for beamsteering of the thermal emission in the range between$$12^\circ$$12and$$80^\circ$$80by tuning the Fermi energy between$$E_F=1.0$$EF=1.0eV and$$E_F=0.25$$EF=0.25eV through the gate voltage. Our analysis of the nonlocal hydrodynamic response leads to the conjecture that the diffusion length and viscosity in graphene are frequency-dependent. Using finite-difference time domain calculations, coupled mode theory, and RPA, we develop the model of a mid-IR light source based on NPG, which will pave the way to graphene-based optical mid-IR communication, mid-IR color displays, mid-IR spectroscopy, and virus detection.

    « less
  2. Abstract

    Optomechanical systems offer new opportunities in quantum information processing and quantum sensing. Many solid-state quantum devices operate at millikelvin temperatures—however, it has proven challenging to operate nanoscale optomechanical devices at these ultralow temperatures due to their limited thermal conductance and parasitic optical absorption. Here, we present a two-dimensional optomechanical crystal resonator capable of achieving large cooperativityCand small effective bath occupancynb, resulting in a quantum cooperativityCeff ≡ C/nb > 1 under continuous-wave optical driving. This is realized using a two-dimensional phononic bandgap structure to host the optomechanical cavity, simultaneously isolating the acoustic mode of interest in the bandgap while allowing heat to be removedmore »by phonon modes outside of the bandgap. This achievement paves the way for a variety of applications requiring quantum-coherent optomechanical interactions, such as transducers capable of bi-directional conversion of quantum states between microwave frequency superconducting quantum circuits and optical photons in a fiber optic network.

    « less
  3. Context. The possible existence of warm ( T eff  ∼ 19 000 K) pulsating DA white dwarf (WD) stars, hotter than ZZ Ceti stars, was predicted in theoretical studies more than 30 yr ago. These studies reported the occurrence of g -mode pulsational instabilities due to the κ mechanism acting in the partial ionization zone of He below the H envelope in models of DA WDs with very thin H envelopes ( M H / M ⋆  ≲ 10 −10 ). However, to date, no pulsating warm DA WD has been discovered, despite the varied theoretical and observational evidence suggesting that a fractionmore »of WDs should be formed with a range of very low H content. Aims. We re-examine the pulsational predictions for such WDs on the basis of new full evolutionary sequences. We analyze all the warm DAs observed by the TESS satellite up to Sector 9 in order to search for the possible pulsational signal. Methods. We computed WD evolutionary sequences of masses 0.58 and 0.80 M ⊙ with H content in the range −14.5 ≲ log( M H / M ⋆ )≲ − 10, appropriate for the study of pulsational instability of warm DA WDs. Initial models were extracted from progenitors that were evolved through very late thermal pulses on the early cooling branch. We use LPCODE stellar code into which we have incorporated a new full-implicit treatment of time-dependent element diffusion to precisely model the H–He transition zone in evolving WD models with very low H content. The nonadiabatic pulsations of our warm DA WD models were computed in the effective temperature range of 30 000 − 10 000 K, focusing on ℓ = 1 g modes with periods in the range 50 − 1500 s. Results. We find that traces of H surviving the very late thermal pulse float to the surface, eventually forming thin, growing pure H envelopes and rather extended H–He transition zones. We find that such extended transition zones inhibit the excitation of g modes due to partial ionization of He below the H envelope. Only in the cases where the H–He transition is assumed much more abrupt than predicted by diffusion do models exhibit pulsational instability. In this case, instabilities are found only in WD models with H envelopes in the range of −14.5 ≲ log( M H / M ⋆ )≲ − 10 and at effective temperatures higher than those typical for ZZ Ceti stars, in agreement with previous studies. None of the 36 warm DAs observed so far by TESS satellite are found to pulsate. Conclusions. Our study suggests that the nondetection of pulsating warm DAs, if WDs with very thin H envelopes do exist, could be attributed to the presence of a smooth and extended H–He transition zone. This could be considered as indirect proof that element diffusion indeed operates in the interior of WDs.« less
  4. Abstract. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) has become a popular technique for measuringabsorption of light by atmospheric aerosols in both the laboratory andfield campaigns. It has low detection limits, measures suspended aerosols,and is insensitive to scattering. But PAS requires rigorous calibration to beapplied quantitatively. Often, a PAS instrument is either filled with a gasof known concentration and absorption cross section, such that the absorptionin the cell can be calculated from the product of the two, or the absorptionis measured independently with a technique such as cavity ring-downspectroscopy. Then, the PAS signal can be regressed upon the known absorptionto determine a calibration slopemore »that reflects the sensitivity constant ofthe cell and microphone. Ozone has been used for calibrating PAS instrumentsdue to its well-known UV–visible absorption spectrum and the ease with whichit can be generated. However, it is known to photodissociate up toapproximately 1120nm via the O3 + hν(>1.1eV)O2(3Σg-) + O(3P) pathway, which is likely tolead to inaccuracies in aerosol measurements. Two recent studies haveinvestigated the use of O3 for PAS calibration but have reachedseemingly contradictory conclusions with one finding that it results in asensitivity that is a factor of 2 low and the other concluding that it isaccurate. The present work is meant to add to this discussion by exploringthe extent to which O3 photodissociates in the PAS cell and the rolethat the identity of the bath gas plays in determining the PAS sensitivity.We find a 5% loss in PAS signal attributable to photodissociation at 532nmin N2 but no loss in a 5% mixture of O2 in N2.Furthermore, we discovered a dramatic increase of more than a factor of 2in the PAS sensitivity as we increased the O2 fraction in the bathgas, which reached an asymptote near 100% O2 that nearly matched thesensitivity measured with both NO2 and nigrosin particles. Weinterpret this dependence with a kinetic model that suggests the reason forthe observed results is a more efficient transfer of energy from excitedO3 to O2 than to N2 by a factor of 22–55 depending onexcitation wavelength. Notably, the two prior studies on this topic useddifferent bath gas compositions, and although the results presented here donot fully resolve the differences in their results, they may at leastpartially explain them.

    « less
  5. We present high-resolution millimeter continuum ALMA observations of the disks around the T Tauri stars LkCa 15 and 2MASS J16100501-2132318 (hereafter, J1610). These transition disks host dust-depleted inner regions, which have possibly been carved by massive planets, and they are of prime interest to the study of the imprints of planet-disk interactions. While at moderate angular resolution, they appear as a broad ring surrounding a cavity, the continuum emission resolves into multiple rings at a resolution of ~60 × 40 mas (~7.5 au for LkCa 15, ~6 au for J1610) and ~7 μ Jy beam −1 rms at 1.3 mm.more »In addition to a broad extended component, LkCa 15 and J1610 host three and two narrow rings, respectively, with two bright rings in LkCa 15 being radially resolved. LkCa 15 possibly hosts another faint ring close to the outer edge of the mm emission. The rings look marginally optically thick, with peak optical depths of ~0.5 (neglecting scattering), in agreement with high angular resolution observations of full disks. We performed hydrodynamical simulations with an embedded, sub-Jovian-mass planet and show that the observed multi-ringed substructure can be qualitatively explained as the outcome of the planet-disk interaction. We note, however, that the choice of the disk cooling timescale alone can significantly impact the resulting gas and dust distributions around the planet, leading to different numbers of rings and gaps and different spacings between them. We propose that the massive outer disk regions of transition disks are favorable places for planetesimals, and possibly second-generation planet formation of objects with a lower mass than the planets carving the inner cavity (typically few M Jup ), and that the annular substructures observed in LkCa 15 and J1610 may be indicative of planetary core formation within dust-rich pressure traps. Current observations are compatible with other mechanisms contributing to the origin of the observed substructures, in particular with regard to narrow rings generated (or facilitated) at the edge of the CO and N 2 snowlines.« less