- Award ID(s):
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Integrative and Comparative Biology
- Page Range / eLocation ID:
- 275 to 287
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Genetic variants of mitochondrial DNA at the individual (heteroplasmy) and population (polymorphism) levels provide insight into their roles in multiple cellular and evolutionary processes. However, owing to the paucity of genome-wide data at the within-individual and population levels, the broad patterns of these two forms of variation remain poorly understood. Here, we analyze 1,804 complete mitochondrial genome sequences from Daphnia pulex, Daphnia pulicaria, and Daphnia obtusa. Extensive heteroplasmy is observed in D. obtusa, where the high level of intraclonal divergence must have resulted from a biparental-inheritance event, and recombination in the mitochondrial genome is apparent, although perhaps not widespread. Global samples of D. pulex reveal remarkably low mitochondrial effective population sizes, <3% of those for the nuclear genome. In addition, levels of population diversity in mitochondrial and nuclear genomes are uncorrelated across populations, suggesting an idiosyncratic evolutionary history of mitochondria in D. pulex. These population-genetic features appear to be a consequence of background selection associated with highly deleterious mutations arising in the strongly linked mitochondrial genome, which is consistent with polymorphism and divergence data suggesting a predominance of strong purifying selection. Nonetheless, the fixation of mildly deleterious mutations in the mitochondrial genome also appears to be driving positive selection on genes encoded in the nuclear genome whose products are deployed in the mitochondrion.more » « less
Reciprocal co‐evolving interactions between hosts and parasites are a primary source of strong selection that can promote rapid and often population‐ or genotype‐specific evolutionary change. These host–parasite interactions are also a major source of disease. Despite their importance, very little is known about the genomic basis of co‐evolving host–parasite interactions in natural populations, especially in animals. Here, we use gene expression and sequence evolution approaches to take critical steps towards characterizing the genomic basis of interactions between the freshwater snail
Potamopyrgus antipodarumand its co‐evolving sterilizing trematode parasite, Microphallussp., a textbook example of natural coevolution. We found that Microphallus‐infected P. antipodarumexhibit systematic downregulation of genes relative to uninfected P. antipodarum. The specific genes involved in parasite response differ markedly across lakes, consistent with a scenario where population‐level co‐evolution is leading to population‐specific host–parasite interactions and evolutionary trajectories. We also used an FST‐based approach to identify a set of loci that represent promising candidates for targets of parasite‐mediated selection across lakes as well as within each lake population. These results constitute the first genomic evidence for population‐specific responses to co‐evolving infection in the P. antipodarum‐Microphallusinteraction and provide new insights into the genomic basis of co‐evolutionary interactions in nature.
Mitochondrial genomes co-evolve with the nuclear genome over evolutionary timescales and are shaped by selection in the female germline. Here we investigate how mismatching between nuclear and mitochondrial ancestry impacts the somatic evolution of the mitochondrial genome in different tissues throughout ageing. We used ultrasensitive duplex sequencing to profile ~2.5 million mitochondrial genomes across five mitochondrial haplotypes and three tissues in young and aged mice, cataloguing ~1.2 million mitochondrial somatic and ultralow-frequency inherited mutations, of which 81,097 are unique. We identify haplotype-specific mutational patterns and several mutational hotspots, including at the light strand origin of replication, which consistently exhibits the highest mutation frequency. We show that rodents exhibit a distinct mitochondrial somatic mutational spectrum compared with primates with a surfeit of reactive oxygen species-associated G > T/C > A mutations, and that somatic mutations in protein-coding genes exhibit signatures of negative selection. Lastly, we identify an extensive enrichment in somatic reversion mutations that ‘re-align’ mito-nuclear ancestry within an organism’s lifespan. Together, our findings demonstrate that mitochondrial genomes are a dynamically evolving subcellular population shaped by somatic mutation and selection throughout organismal lifetimes.
INTRODUCTION A major challenge in genomics is discerning which bases among billions alter organismal phenotypes and affect health and disease risk. Evidence of past selective pressure on a base, whether highly conserved or fast evolving, is a marker of functional importance. Bases that are unchanged in all mammals may shape phenotypes that are essential for organismal health. Bases that are evolving quickly in some species, or changed only in species that share an adaptive trait, may shape phenotypes that support survival in specific niches. Identifying bases associated with exceptional capacity for cellular recovery, such as in species that hibernate, could inform therapeutic discovery. RATIONALE The power and resolution of evolutionary analyses scale with the number and diversity of species compared. By analyzing genomes for hundreds of placental mammals, we can detect which individual bases in the genome are exceptionally conserved (constrained) and likely to be functionally important in both coding and noncoding regions. By including species that represent all orders of placental mammals and aligning genomes using a method that does not require designating humans as the reference species, we explore unusual traits in other species. RESULTS Zoonomia’s mammalian comparative genomics resources are the most comprehensive and statistically well-powered produced to date, with a protein-coding alignment of 427 mammals and a whole-genome alignment of 240 placental mammals representing all orders. We estimate that at least 10.7% of the human genome is evolutionarily conserved relative to neutrally evolving repeats and identify about 101 million significantly constrained single bases (false discovery rate < 0.05). We cataloged 4552 ultraconserved elements at least 20 bases long that are identical in more than 98% of the 240 placental mammals. Many constrained bases have no known function, illustrating the potential for discovery using evolutionary measures. Eighty percent are outside protein-coding exons, and half have no functional annotations in the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) resource. Constrained bases tend to vary less within human populations, which is consistent with purifying selection. Species threatened with extinction have few substitutions at constrained sites, possibly because severely deleterious alleles have been purged from their small populations. By pairing Zoonomia’s genomic resources with phenotype annotations, we find genomic elements associated with phenotypes that differ between species, including olfaction, hibernation, brain size, and vocal learning. We associate genomic traits, such as the number of olfactory receptor genes, with physical phenotypes, such as the number of olfactory turbinals. By comparing hibernators and nonhibernators, we implicate genes involved in mitochondrial disorders, protection against heat stress, and longevity in this physiologically intriguing phenotype. Using a machine learning–based approach that predicts tissue-specific cis - regulatory activity in hundreds of species using data from just a few, we associate changes in noncoding sequence with traits for which humans are exceptional: brain size and vocal learning. CONCLUSION Large-scale comparative genomics opens new opportunities to explore how genomes evolved as mammals adapted to a wide range of ecological niches and to discover what is shared across species and what is distinctively human. High-quality data for consistently defined phenotypes are necessary to realize this potential. Through partnerships with researchers in other fields, comparative genomics can address questions in human health and basic biology while guiding efforts to protect the biodiversity that is essential to these discoveries. Comparing genomes from 240 species to explore the evolution of placental mammals. Our new phylogeny (black lines) has alternating gray and white shading, which distinguishes mammalian orders (labeled around the perimeter). Rings around the phylogeny annotate species phenotypes. Seven species with diverse traits are illustrated, with black lines marking their branch in the phylogeny. Sequence conservation across species is described at the top left. IMAGE CREDIT: K. MORRILLmore » « less
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