skip to main content

Title: Out of Sight, Out of Mind: Widespread Nuclear and Plastid-Nuclear Discordance in the Flowering Plant Genus Polemonium (Polemoniaceae) Suggests Widespread Historical Gene Flow Despite Limited Nuclear Signal
Abstract Phylogenomic data from a rapidly increasing number of studies provide new evidence for resolving relationships in recently radiated clades, but they also pose new challenges for inferring evolutionary histories. Most existing methods for reconstructing phylogenetic hypotheses rely solely on algorithms that only consider incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) as a cause of intra- or intergenomic discordance. Here, we utilize a variety of methods, including those to infer phylogenetic networks, to account for both ILS and introgression as a cause for nuclear and cytoplasmic-nuclear discordance using phylogenomic data from the recently radiated flowering plant genus Polemonium (Polemoniaceae), an ecologically diverse genus in Western North America with known and suspected gene flow between species. We find evidence for widespread discordance among nuclear loci that can be explained by both ILS and reticulate evolution in the evolutionary history of Polemonium. Furthermore, the histories of organellar genomes show strong discordance with the inferred species tree from the nuclear genome. Discordance between the nuclear and plastid genome is not completely explained by ILS, and only one case of discordance is explained by detected introgression events. Our results suggest that multiple processes have been involved in the evolutionary history of Polemonium and that the plastid genome more » does not accurately reflect species relationships. We discuss several potential causes for this cytoplasmic-nuclear discordance, which emerging evidence suggests is more widespread across the Tree of Life than previously thought. [Cyto-nuclear discordance, genomic discordance, phylogenetic networks, plastid capture, Polemoniaceae, Polemonium, reticulations.] « less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1655606
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10198183
Journal Name:
Systematic Biology
ISSN:
1063-5157
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Buerkle, Alex (Ed.)
    Inferences about past processes of adaptation and speciation require a gene-scale and genome-wide understanding of the evolutionary history of diverging taxa. In this study, we use genome-wide capture of nuclear gene sequences, plus skimming of organellar sequences, to investigate the phylogenomics of monkeyflowers in Mimulus section Erythranthe (27 accessions from seven species ) . Taxa within Erythranthe , particularly the parapatric and putatively sister species M . lewisii (bee-pollinated) and M . cardinalis (hummingbird-pollinated), have been a model system for investigating the ecological genetics of speciation and adaptation for over five decades. Across >8000 nuclear loci, multiple methods resolve a predominant species tree in which M . cardinalis groups with other hummingbird-pollinated taxa (37% of gene trees), rather than being sister to M . lewisii (32% of gene trees). We independently corroborate a single evolution of hummingbird pollination syndrome in Erythranthe by demonstrating functional redundancy in genetic complementation tests of floral traits in hybrids; together, these analyses overturn a textbook case of pollination-syndrome convergence. Strong asymmetries in allele sharing (Patterson’s D-statistic and related tests) indicate that gene tree discordance reflects ancient and recent introgression rather than incomplete lineage sorting. Consistent with abundant introgression blurring the history of divergence, low-recombination andmore »adaptation-associated regions support the new species tree, while high-recombination regions generate phylogenetic evidence for sister status for M . lewisii and M . cardinalis . Population-level sampling of core taxa also revealed two instances of chloroplast capture, with Sierran M . lewisii and Southern Californian M . parishii each carrying organelle genomes nested within respective sympatric M . cardinalis clades. A recent organellar transfer from M . cardinalis , an outcrosser where selfish cytonuclear dynamics are more likely, may account for the unexpected cytoplasmic male sterility effects of selfer M . parishii organelles in hybrids with M . lewisii . Overall, our phylogenomic results reveal extensive reticulation throughout the evolutionary history of a classic monkeyflower radiation, suggesting that natural selection (re-)assembles and maintains species-diagnostic traits and barriers in the face of gene flow. Our findings further underline the challenges, even in reproductively isolated species, in distinguishing re-use of adaptive alleles from true convergence and emphasize the value of a phylogenomic framework for reconstructing the evolutionary genetics of adaptation and speciation.« less
  2. Kubatko, Laura (Ed.)
    Abstract Evidence from natural systems suggests that hybridization between animal species is more common than traditionally thought, but the overall contribution of introgression to standing genetic variation within species remains unclear for most animal systems. Here, we use targeted exon capture to sequence thousands of nuclear loci and complete mitochondrial genomes from closely related chipmunk species in the Tamias quadrivittatus group that are distributed across the Great Basin and the central and southern Rocky Mountains of North America. This recent radiation includes six overlapping, ecologically distinct species (Tamias canipes, Tamias cinereicollis, Tamias dorsalis, T. quadrivittatus, Tamias rufus, and Tamias umbrinus) that show evidence for widespread introgression across species boundaries. Such evidence has historically been derived from a handful of markers, typically focused on mitochondrial loci, to describe patterns of introgression; consequently, the extent of introgression of nuclear genes is less well characterized. We conducted a series of phylogenomic and species-tree analyses to resolve the phylogeny of six species in this group. In addition, we performed several population-genomic analyses to characterize nuclear genomes and infer coancestry among individuals. Furthermore, we used emerging quartets-based approaches to simultaneously infer the species tree (SVDquartets) and identify introgression (HyDe). We found that, in spite ofmore »rampant introgression of mitochondrial genomes between some species pairs (and sometimes involving up to three species), there appears to be little to no evidence for nuclear introgression. These findings mirror other genomic results where complete mitochondrial capture has occurred between chipmunk species in the absence of appreciable nuclear gene flow. The underlying causes of recurrent massive cytonuclear discordance remain unresolved in this group but mitochondrial DNA appears highly misleading of population histories as a whole. Collectively, it appears that chipmunk species boundaries are largely impermeable to nuclear gene flow and that hybridization, while pervasive with respect to mtDNA, has likely played a relatively minor role in the evolutionary history of this group. [Cytonuclear discordance; hyridization; introgression, phylogenomics; SVDquartets; Tamias.]« less
  3. Using presence/absence data from over 10,000 Ves SINE insertions, we reconstructed a phylogeny for 11 Myotis species. With nearly one-third of individual Ves gene trees discordant with the overall species tree, phylogenetic conflict appears to be rampant in this genus. From the observed conflict, we infer that ILS is likely a major contributor to the discordance. Much of the discordance can be attributed to the hypothesized split between the Old World and New World Myotis clades and with the first radiation of Myotis within the New World. Quartet asymmetry tests reveal signs of introgression between Old and New World taxa that may have persisted until approximately 8 MYA. Our introgression tests also revealed evidence of both historic and more recent, perhaps even contemporary, gene flow among Myotis species of the New World. Our findings suggest that hybridization likely played an important role in the evolutionary history of Myotis and may still be happening in areas of sympatry. Despite limitations arising from extreme discordance, our SINE-based phylogeny better resolved deeper relationships (particularly the positioning of M. brandtii) and was able to identify potential introgression pathways among the Myotis species sampled.
  4. Abstract Phylogenomic analyses are recovering previously hidden histories of hybridization, revealing the genomic consequences of these events on the architecture of extant genomes. We applied phylogenomic techniques and several complementary statistical tests to show that introgressive hybridization appears to have occurred between close relatives of Arabidopsis, resulting in cytonuclear discordance and impacting our understanding of species relationships in the group. The composition of introgressed and retained genes indicates that selection against incompatible cytonuclear and nuclear-nuclear interactions likely acted during introgression, while linkage also contributed to genome composition through the retention of ancient haplotype blocks. We also applied divergence-based tests to determine the species branching order and distinguish donor from recipient lineages. Surprisingly, these analyses suggest that cytonuclear discordance arose via extensive nuclear, rather than cytoplasmic, introgression. If true, this would mean that most of the nuclear genome was displaced during introgression, while only a small proportion of native alleles were retained.
  5. Jiggins, Chris D. (Ed.)
    Our understanding of the evolutionary history of primates is undergoing continual revision due to ongoing genome sequencing efforts. Bolstered by growing fossil evidence, these data have led to increased acceptance of once controversial hypotheses regarding phylogenetic relationships, hybridization and introgression, and the biogeographical history of primate groups. Among these findings is a pattern of recent introgression between species within all major primate groups examined to date, though little is known about introgression deeper in time. To address this and other phylogenetic questions, here, we present new reference genome assemblies for 3 Old World monkey (OWM) species: Colobus angolensis ssp. palliatus (the black and white colobus), Macaca nemestrina (southern pig-tailed macaque), and Mandrillus leucophaeus (the drill). We combine these data with 23 additional primate genomes to estimate both the species tree and individual gene trees using thousands of loci. While our species tree is largely consistent with previous phylogenetic hypotheses, the gene trees reveal high levels of genealogical discordance associated with multiple primate radiations. We use strongly asymmetric patterns of gene tree discordance around specific branches to identify multiple instances of introgression between ancestral primate lineages. In addition, we exploit recent fossil evidence to perform fossil-calibrated molecular dating analyses across themore »tree. Taken together, our genome-wide data help to resolve multiple contentious sets of relationships among primates, while also providing insight into the biological processes and technical artifacts that led to the disagreements in the first place.« less