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- Science Advances
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Room-temperature, pulsed-operation lasing of 8.5 μm-emitting InP-based quantum cascade lasers (QCLs), with low threshold-current density and watt-level output power, is demonstrated from structures grown on (001) GaAs substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Prior to growing the laser structure, which contains a 35-stage In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As/In 0.52 Al 0.48 As lattice-matched active-core region, a ∼2 μm-thick nearly fully relaxed InP buffer with strained 1.6 nm-thick InAs quantum-dot-like dislocation-filter layers was grown. A smooth terminal buffer-layer surface, with roughness as low as 0.4 nm on a 10 × 10 μm 2 scale, was obtained, while the estimated threading-dislocation density was in the mid-range × 10 8 cm −2 . A series of measurements, on lasers grown on InP metamorphic buffer layers (MBLs) and on native InP substrates, were performed for understanding the impact of the buffer-layer's surface roughness, residual strain, and threading-dislocation density on unipolar devices such as QCLs. As-cleaved devices, grown on InP MBLs, were fabricated as 25 μm × 3 mm deep-etched ridge guides with lateral current injection. The results are pulsed maximum output power of 1.95 W/facet and a low threshold-current density of 1.86 kA/cm 2 at 293 K. These values are comparable to those obtained from devices grown on InP: 2.09 W/facet and 2.42 kA/cm 2 . This demonstrates the relative insensitivity of the device-performance metrics on high residual threading-dislocation density, and high-performance InP-based QCLs emitting near 8 μm can be achieved on lattice-mismatched substrates.more » « less
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The electrically pumped vertical-cavity surface- emitting laser (VCSEL) was first demonstrated with metal cavities by Iga (1979); however, the device threshold current was too high. Distributed Bragg reflector cavities proposed by Scifres and Burnham (1975) were adopted to improve the optical cavity loss. Yet, it was not a practical use until the discovery of the native oxide of AlGaAs and the insertion of quantum wells to provide simultaneous current and optical confinement in semiconductor laser by Holonyak and Dallesasse (1990). Later, the first “low- threshold” oxide-confined VCSEL was realized by Deppe (1994) and opened the door of commercial application for a gigabit energy-efficient optical links. At present, we demonstrated that the oxide-confined VCSELs have advanced error-free data trans- mission [bit-error rate (BER) ≤ 10−12]to 57 Gb/s at 25 °C and 50 Gb/s at 85 °C, and also demonstrated that the pre-leveled 16-quadrature amplitude modulation orthogonal frequency- division multiplexing data were achieved at 104 Gbit/s under back-to-back transmission with the received error vector mag- nitude, SNR, and BER of 17.3%, 15.2 dB, and 3.8 × 10−3, respectively.more » « less
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Organized nano‐ and microstructures of molecular semiconductors display interesting optical and photonic properties, and enhanced charge carrier mobilities, as compared to disordered thin films. However, known directed‐growth and self‐organization strategies cannot create structured molecular heterojunctions and cannot be practically incorporated into existing device fabrication routines to create large‐area optoelectronic devices. Here, an ultrathin (
<2 nm) seed layer of the compound coronene creates 1D nanostructures of an electron‐transporting molecule (IFD) is shown, which possesses an intrinsic proclivity to form disordered thin films in the absence of the seed layer. It is revealed that nanostructured IFD films exhibit enhanced light absorption and emission, and greater electron mobilities, as compared to amorphous counterparts. This seed layer strategy creates uniform IFD nanowires over large areas of up to 18 mm2at low processing temperatures. Notably, the coronene seed layer creates IFD nanowires when applied over either oxide surfaces or predeposited organic layers, meaning that this structuring approach can be integrated into diode manufacturing routines to realize large‐area flexible optoelectronic devices. Flexible organic light‐emitting diodes and fullerene‐free organic solar cells containing IFD nanowires in the photoactive layer to demonstrate that molecular nanostructures can lead to robust, large‐area device arrays on flexible substrates being fabricated.